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Chapter Nine: Jiang Shan Lou Ge Feng Ya (Part 2)

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Chapter Nine: Jiang Shan Lou Ge Ju Feng Ya (Part 2) _ 越 楚 _ 上海 博客 [Original Address]
Category: Uncategorized | Modify | Delete | 2011-03-21 20:05:00
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Corresponding to the "Four Great Buddhist Jungles", Wuhan also has "Four Avenues Holy Lands", which are Changchun Temple, Yuanmiao Temple, Wudang Palace, and Dadao Temple, which used to be the "hole heaven blessings" of the Huangguan Taoists.
Changchunguan
What Li Bai said in "Looking at Yellow Crane Mountain" refers to the section of ancient Changchun Temple. According to legend, in ancient times this place was loose, so it was called "Matsushima". Taoist originator Lao Tzu was invited to Lufu to "Five Old Men", and after arriving in Ezhou, he went west to the town of Hugang and Changsong Island at the foot of Shuangfeng Mountain. Later affiliates will say that this Songdo is Changsongdao, and there was an old uterus. Although the old womb was a rumor, in the Qin and Han dynasties and the Tang and Song dynasties, "Xiannong altar", "God arrived altar", "Tai Chi palace" and "Tai Qing" were built. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhu Xi recorded this geomantic treasure in the Book of Altars of the Ezhou Society: "Under the Yellow Crane Mountain in the east of the city, there is a waste camp. The east and west crosses, the north and south are different, and the four altars are drawn according to politics and five courtesies."
At the beginning of Yuan Dynasty, Qiu Chuji, founder of the Longmen School of Quanzhen Taoism, was named Changchunzi, who imitated Buddhism to create a jungle system. He was repeatedly rewarded by Genghis Khan of Yuan Taizu, in charge of Taoism in the world, and rescued people with the Southward Army (Yuan Jun). The place where the puppet army went through was the place where Qiu's disciples taught. Therefore, the disciples of the Qiu family in the area of Jinghu, in order to worship the real people of Changchun, built a view of Changchun named after the Qiu family road on Songdao.
During the reign of King Sejong of the Ming Dynasty, Changchun Temple "produced by Xianzhen, is a special work of the Hubei jungle, with thousands of houses, thousands of Taoists, and incense." Every year on the 19th day of the first lunar calendar, the grand view of Changchun is bound to be the grand Qiu Zuhui. Qiu Chuji was born on the 19th day of the 1st Lunar Year of Shaoxing in the Song Dynasty. It is said that Tianxian actually descended at midnight on the 18th, and wish Qiu Changchun a blessing. During this time, immortal fantasy is infinite, either for a beggar or a feather guest. If a good man and a good girl meet by chance, they will be blessed. Therefore, every day on this day, three towns and towns gathered in Changchun to see the wings and immortals. Hou Liu is a folk custom, known as the "Spring Festival", also known as "Yan Jiu Festival". Kong Shangren once wrote "Yan Jiu Zhu Zhi Ci", depicting the feelings of the winged immortals in the meeting: "Only after walking the Xingqiao and walking in the clouds, true immortals do not encounter the heart."
In Changchun, there is a complete set of "Authentic Taoism Collection", which is regarded as a treasure of Taoism. In addition, the deities, deities, implements, and plaques are complete and elegant. The place of refuge. " Qian Daxin, a well-known phonologist, came to Changchun in 1774 to read Dao Zang, and wrote the Preface to the Three Holes in Lai Chenglou. The "Chinese History of Science and Technology" written by Needham, England, has a large number of references to "Tao Tibet" materials.
Changchun Guan had served as a prison and the abbot had a good fortune, and the celebrities of the Qing Dynasty came to Changchun to read the Tibetan Bible study. In 1865 (four years in Tongzhi), Zhang Gengyun, a lawyer who presided over the precepts in Bai Zhiguan, Beijing, was invited by the Changchun Temple Superintendent Yu Benxian and Jin Jiaofa to open the altar to preach. In 1925, the 22nd-generation Longmen Orthodox Orthodox Lawyer Liu Xun, who was a monk in Longmen, Tianmen County, and Hou Yongde, the Superintendent of the Academy, joined hands to open the altar. Political and business politicians gathered, filled with high friends, Li Yuanhong presented the plaque "I wish you a complete success", and Xiao Yuenan presented the plaque "Don't bother with the road".
Changchun Temple is located at the forefront of Wuchang, so the Guanyu building has been repeatedly soldiered and rebuilt. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Taiping Army and the Qing Army fought for Wuchang City three times, and Changchun Temple was ruined after the war. The seven rules of "Viewing Burn" made by the official text of the former Governor of Hubei and Guangxi are witnesses:
The ancient view burned like time, and asked who grew green lotus in the fire.
The spring breeze is steep with two peaks, and it is full of smoke.
Every time the vicissitudes of life increase, I want to find cave gods.
You have a chance to return to this place and return to the Pudu boat.
In 1864, He Hechun, the sixteenth-generation grandmaster of the Longmen, made a vow from Wudang Mountain and received donations from Guanwen and Li Shizong, the governor of Jiangnan Titian Army. Qing Poet Wang Baixin wrote a poem "View of Changchun" for this:
The mountains and rivers pitched and robbed Yu Yu, and opened a courtyard house in Guanzhong.
Qiongtai in Zifu is still dying, and Jin Du, the capital, is clear.
In 1926, the Northern Expedition and Wu Peifu fought under Wuchang City. Ye Ting's independent division was stationed in Changchun Guan, and a front command was established in the Three Emperors' Hall. Guo Moruo, deputy director of the General Political Department of the National Revolutionary Army, temporarily stayed in the temple; Deng Yanda supervised the battle, his sleeve was penetrated by bullets; Inside. To this end, Guo Moruo mourns the heroes of the Northern Expedition with tears:
A bullet went through his head and ran through his chest.
The view of Changchun outside Binyang Gate is left to Qiantong's history.
The present pattern of Changchun view is in 1864, where He Hechun led the public to imitate the architectural style of the Ming Dynasty. The whole view is divided into three paths, left, center, and right, and the atrium has four paths. The first entrance is the red-walled and blue-walled Lingguan Hall, which is used to guard the mountain gate's god "Five Shuhufu Tianjiang", which is really mighty. Around a giant tripod, after the "five dragons hold the holy god", the Taiqing Hall rising to the top is the Taiqing Hall. The statue of Taishang Laojun, the first ancestor of Taoism, about 5 meters in height, is dedicated to the middle. On the back, Laojun's disciples Nanhua and Yinxi live. On the walls of the East and West Palaces are large-scale colorful murals with themes of Confucius' courtesy and Laozi's cultivation, teaching of Scripture, and the release of Guguguan. Go through the Yuanyuan and Penghu Yuemen, and go straight to Qizhen Temple along the flower path. Seven disciples of the founder of the Quanzhen religion, Wang Chongyang, represent seven different denominations: Qiu Chuji of the Longmen School, Ma Yu of the Yushan School, Tan Chuduan of the Nanwu School, Liu Chuxuan of the Suishan School, Li Wang Chuyi of the Shan School, Hao Datong of the Hua Shan School, and Sun Fuji of the Qingjing School. When you step out of the hall, you will climb the stone steps, which means the "step-level heavenly level" with hidden mystery. According to the ancient legend, if you do n’t meet the Taoist in the temple, if you meet the Taoist on the Huixian Bridge, you will have a “fairy edge”. Further climbing is the Three Emperors Hall. The red-walled and blue-walled hall enshrines the Chinese ancestors Fu Xi, Shen Nong, and Xuan Yuan. The three statues are primitive in appearance, four feet tall, with exposed limbs, and only leaf clothing.
Inside the view, there is still a “Heihexuan” with Bai Hewen's sounds; the hands holding a clean bottle, the dignified “Cihang Master”; the engraved temple of “Changchun Qionghuan” and “Emperor ’s treasure” Wall; the noon planting pavilion for the ten parties to save suffering; the "return to the Dan well" manifested by Lu Dongbin who traveled to the rivers and lakes after finishing the South Road;
Yuanmiaoguan
In Hanyang, there is a place with a winding path, which is the Taoist Holy Land. Wu Ting, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, used this view as a poem cloud:
Xuan Miao Xian Gong Han water, staggered Taiwan Pavilion Cui Weilian.
On the verge of the Beidou Tengdanqi, look down at the Nanyan Biyan.
缥缈 Feng Linhuan Taiyi, the true secret of the strict dragon and tiger.
Longevity wants to visit Anji, and Yun San Yao Kong Yue Man Chuan.
When Yuan Miaoguan was first built, it was located east of Hanyang County. During the Song Dynasty of Lizong in the Southern Song Dynasty (1241-1252), the local government commissioned Ye Jingyu, a real person in Zhongmiao, to rebuild it. In the early years of Hongwu of Ming Dynasty, Zhao Tinglan served as the magistrate, and the view moved to the west of the city. In 1383 (the sixteenth year of Ming Hongwu), "King Zhao Zhao had disease" and the government "overhauled the famous place in the country." Here, under the auspices of Wang Zhiming, the deputy capital of Jiangling, Jingzhou, Yuan Miaoguan was expanded and repaired on an unprecedented scale. The halls and gates of the palace were exquisitely beautiful. Here, the famous Taoist Han Mingshan once served in the Department of Discipline. The prefect Liu Rusong is a frequent visitor to Yuan Miaoguan. He immediately wrote a poem after being drunk:
For the interview with the mysterious place, the rocky moss is heavy.
The rain fence is deep in Xue Li, and the open well is in hibiscus.
Sober up often with stones, Kaiyun alone pine.
The late ascends the dragon, and there are green peaks on the river.
Yuan Miaoguan was the earliest ten-square jungle in Taoism in Wuhan. The native Chinese Taoist temples were generally named after the emperor's temple, and it was precisely because of the emperor's favor, that the Yuan Miaoguan changed its name with the change of the emperor. In 967 (five years of Song Qiande), 13 years after Wang Xiu founded Taoism, Song Muzong named it "Tianqing". In 1312 (the first year of Yuanhuangqing), the order was changed to "Xuan Miao". During the reign of Emperor Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, he renamed it "Yuan Miao" because of avoiding the name of Emperor Kangxi (Xuan Zang). No wonder Zong Shengdao, a monk who has been in Yuanmiaoguan for more than 30 years, said with emotion: "Although the monks are outside the heart, the body and the palace are inseparable from the inside."
Yuan Miaoguan's architectural form is unique. Looking down from the top of Guishan Mountain, the entire Guanyu plane has a gourd shape, nine palaces in all directions, and gossip and nine horns. The setting and layout of each palace has a mysterious legend. The first palace is the spiritual palace with red walls and blue tiles. He is a disciple of Lin Lingsu, who is highly revered by Song Huizong. Because of his uprightness, Taoism asked him to guard the gate. The palace also supports the gods of Qinglong, White Tiger, Xuanwu, and Suzaku. They are arranged in a five-square pattern of gold, wood, water, fire, and earth, and take the meaning of "born in nature and become more immortal, and living creatures gradually become more and more endless." It symbolizes the essence of longevity, with magnificence. The second house is the Sanqing Hall, dedicated to the deities of Yuqing, Shangqing, and Taiqing, taking the meaning of Laozi as "one gasification of three Qings". "San Qing" is the supreme deity of Taoism, that is, the oldest prince of the so-called "born in the world, no life does not exist" worshiped by Taoism, the first-level middle god in the Taoist Scriptures, "the first heaven god" and Lord Tao "Lingbaozun". The third and fourth houses are the Qiu Zu and Lu Zu halls, which are juxtaposed with the Sanqing hall. The ancestral hall dedicated to Changchun's real life Qiu Chuji, and the Lu Zudian dedicated to one of the five northern ancestors of the Taoism, Lu Dongbin. He was handed down to Huang Heji to leave the poem, "Sacred traces at the head of the Yellow Crane Tower, and alchemy in the Yuqing Hall." The Fifth Palace is the Jade Emperor's Palace, dedicated to the Jade Emperor, and alongside them are the Sixth Palace Lei Zu Palace and the Seventh Palace Wenchang Palace. The Temple of Lei Zu worships the thunder and lightning mother of the wind and lightning, and the Temple of Wenchang worships the emperor Wenchang. Behind the three major halls are the Third Palace and the Ninth Palace Tuas Pavilion. The three palaces worship "celestial officials, local officials, and water officials." Taoism believes that heaven officials bless, earth officials forgive sins, and water officials relieve their distress. The ridge of the Sanguan Palace is engraved with a dragon, forming a spiral shape. Tuas Court is dedicated to the people of the Mercy Channel.
Yuanmiao Temple is lined with beautiful trees. Behind the main hall is a hundred-year-old elm tree, and underneath the tree is the ancestor of the Mountain Master Wang Xiu. For this reason, the Ming Dynasty poet Zhao Kun once stood an elm and chanted a poem to praise the glorious glory of Yuan Miao Xian Gong:
Cui Yilou Pavilion leaned on the palace, and there was a real human tiger.
A little red dust could not fly, and Dan's house was often blocked by white clouds.
Wudanggong
Wudang Palace is the only Taoist temple named as "Palace" among the four sacred places of Taoism in Wuhan. Known as "the place where the world is beautiful, the house of the gods". According to the "Tale of Taiyue Taihe Mountains", Wudang Mountain, a blissful Taoist cave located south of Junxian County (present Shiyan) in Hubei Province, not only has beautiful natural scenery, but also various fairies and feathers gathered from 1275 (yuan to yuan (11 years) Wu Dangshan Taoist Lu Dazhen visited Quanzhen Dao from his hometown in the north. He and Wang Zhen often preached Quanzhen Dafa in Wudang Mountain and spent more than a hundred disciples. At this point, Wuhan Fang started to have Quanzhen Taoism. Wudang Mountain, which is known as the "Five Miles, Ten Miles Palace, and Dan Wall with Cuiwa exquisite exquisiteness", most of the temples are named by the emperor Zhu Xi of the Ming Dynasty. According to legend, Lu Dayi's disciples made a wish to come to the foot of Huangpi Mountain to build the Wudang Mountain courtyard, hence the name Wudang Palace. Like other Taoist sacred sites, Wudang Palace has always been favored by feudal rulers. Successive abbots in Wudang Palace not only regained joy and skills, but also good health, and mastered traditional Chinese medicine. The dignitaries who wanted to "get the Tao to become immortal and not tired of things" were noble, so they had a relationship with Taoism and overhauled the famous temple in order to live forever.
In the Ming Dynasty "Universal History", the Wudang Palace was originally built in the Pinghu Gate of Wuchang, east of the ancient Yellow Crane Tower. It was continued in the early years of Hongwu, rebuilt in 1445 (the 10th year of the Ming Orthodox), and rebuilt in 1673 (the 12th year of the Kangxi reign ) For large-scale reconstruction, and "Reconstruction of Wudang Palace Monument". In the early years of the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty, the government government moved the palace to the west of the school.
After the relocation of Wudangguan, the former site is the Temple of Wuchang Fucheng, with the temple facing north and south facing Snake Mountain, with the mountain gate facing Nantianmen. It is said that this palace has a land of immortals in 30 years and a day of immortals in 60 years. The double-walled book on the mountain gate has the word "Dragon and Tiger" which is 1 meter square, and it is vigorous and vigorous. When you enter the mountain gate, you enter the immortal realm. According to Taoism, the mountain gate belongs to the vulgar world. Wudang Palace is famous for its "Xiu Cui", and the Spirit Palace, Yuqing Palace and the Three Emperors Palace are all hidden in the shade of green trees. The ancient pines are towering in front of each temple, and flowers are planted along the wall at four o'clock. The ancient swan pond is on the right side of the palace. It is said that swans once came here to drink water and play. The looming swan on the red dusty road will be auspicious in life. The Swan Pond has sweet water, clear eyes, and can make wine. Gongzuo rockery is scattered, ancient locusts are lush, and there are many monuments. There is a bridge between the rockery and Jiedai. The spring water under the bridge is lush and the moss is green. Every flower path is shaded by trees and can reach every temple. The deities in the Yuqing Hall are the most exquisite, decorated with two dragon opera beads and double phoenix sunrise, and the majestic carved stone seat. The pearl lanterns, treasure jars, incense sticks and other decorations displayed on the ceiling are all given by the key members of Wuchang Mansion. Every time Zhenwu ’s birthday is celebrated, bells and drums are ringing, cigarettes are lingering, and the sound of the rock is long, adding infinite interest to the ancient temple's solemn dojo. Once in this situation, there is a sense of vulgarity. The quiet and elegant courtyard and the solemn palace enveloped the simplicity and mystery of this "House of the Deities".
Dadaoguan
Hankou was established as a foreign commercial port in modern times, and along the Liji Road, where trade is flourishing, there is a well-known Taoist holy land. Because it is located in a densely populated city street, it is called Avenue View.
Although the history of Daoist Temple is not far away, it was once famous because of its downtown location, even surpassing other Taoist temples. The original foundation of the Avenue View is a pond, and there is a jade pavilion beside the pond for people to pray for good weather. During the Qing Dynasty, it was expanded into a temple and named Yuhuangge. In 1885 (the eleventh year of Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty), Li Min, a Taoist who lived in the temple, was unable to support him, so he donated all the temple property to Du Yuanchun, a Taoist friend. Temple properties belong to Taoists, and all Taoists have the right to stay in residence. In the early years of the Republic of China, Hou Yongde from the Changchun Watching Supervision Institute initiated the recruitment and appointed Zhike Pei Zhide to supervise the construction. The reconstructed avenue occupies a total area of 1,632 square meters, with a construction area of 2,461 square meters, and has 7 halls, guest rooms and halls. Most of the halls are space-saving. The Shanmen Lingguan Hall and the Jade Emperor Pavilion are designed as two upper and lower floors, and 9 paved areas are also opened on the street. According to the location of the city's front street, the help of giant merchants makes this view very popular, and there are many 70 people in the resident road.
Avenue view is famous for its Taoist activities in Wuhan Taoist circles. From 1945 to 1950, its prayer flags were the most prosperous, with prayer flag rituals more than a dozen times a month and a half, and small flame mouths and fastings almost continued. Especially when Yin Jingshan was in high power, the scriptures of the Dadaoguan were more frequent. Yin Gaogong's eyebrows are thick, his eyes are big, his stature is burly, and he is very powerful, especially when he chants his poems, sometimes he is faint and frustrated, and sometimes hesitant, making believers on the court fascinated. At that time, all the wealthy merchants in Hankou invited him to the main altar and even waited in line.
On the ninth day of the first month of the lunar calendar, Dadaoguan holds a large-scale "Jade Emperor's Congregation". According to Taoism, although the Emperor Haotianyu had four emperors (the four emperors) to assist in the operation of the heavenly Taoism, each year from the 25th of the lunar month to the 9th day of the first lunar month, he still descended to the lower realm and personally inspected the good and evil of all beings, Good punishes evil. At midnight on this day, the avenue spectators knelt in front of the Jade Emperor's Pavilion, respectfully greeted the Jade Emperor's driving, chanting rituals, and wished Guotai and Min'an, good weather, good grain, mountain gates, incense and morality. The red dusty road, the donor Xuanke, poured into the mountain gate Taoist temple, Jingxiang also wished to be safe and healthy every year. Several major companies in Hankou or some charitable organizations have raised funds to ask for "The Supreme Jade Emperor's Scriptures". There are as many as 36 chanters for 49 days, so that the emperor can fully enjoy the incense in the world during the half-month in the lower world. Congratulations, return to Tiangong on the afternoon of the birthday (the 9th day of the first month).
In 1952, as the abbot of Pei Yude passed away, the inner incense gradually died.
Yuemachang and Red House
The Yuemachang (formerly known as the Yuemachang) and the Red Mansion are famous around the world for their first righteousness in the Wuchang Revolution of 1911. The former was the place where Huang Xing “visited the generals”, and the latter was the former republic of Hubei military government in modern China. The teaching ground in the Ming Dynasty was called the parade building, and there were three halls for performing martial arts outside the Wusheng Gate in Wuchang. During the Shunzhi period of the Qing Dynasty, governor Liu Zhaolin of Hubei rebuilt a new teaching site at the southern foot of Sheshan, known as the Yuemachang. It is the playground of the Qing Army ’s military exercises and the examination room where martial arts examinations are held. There is also a performance military hall, and the barracks of the Qing Army ’s green battalion are also there. In 1688 (in the 27th year of the Kangxi Reign of the Qing Dynasty), a green camp soldier was laid off, and Xia Fenglong (Xia Baozi) was led to establish the "President Marshal's House". In 1853 (three years of Xianfeng), after the Taiping Army captured Wuchang, it built a "reason" (propaganda revolution) and held an oath ceremony in Nanjing. Therefore, the Yuebachang was originally a martial arts ground for military exercises, army development, and oath division.
After the Wuchang Uprising, Li Yuanhong erected a high platform on the southern side of the horse-riding ground on the morning of November 3 to hold a grand ceremony for worshiping Huang Xing. This ancient ceremony that imitated Liu Bang worshiping Han Xin as a general, although it felt a little upside down, objectively, in order to stabilize the army and the people at that time, uniting the forces of various factions played a positive role.
Today, a pale red terrazzo monument stands on the site of Baijiangtai. The base of the monument covers an area of 30 square meters, and the monument is 2.7 meters high. It has a square cone shape, looks like a sword in the distance, and pierces the sky. The base is 1.2 meters high and is made of octagonal hemp. It is surrounded by iron chains. It is engraved on the monument: "I will admire the commander in chief of Li Xinyi, the capital of Taiwan ’s Xinhai Revolutionary Army.
The Red House was originally the seat of the Hubei Counseling Bureau established in the late Qing Dynasty for "preparatory constitutionalism". It was built in 1909 (the first year of Xuantong) and completed in 1910. It cost more than 100,000 silver and was the most magnificent building in Wuchang at that time.
Honglou is a group of imitation western-style buildings arranged in a traditional Chinese courtyard. It covers an area of more than 18,000 square meters and a building area of 6000 square meters. The main building is a red building, so it is called "red building". The form is similar to the administrative hall of modern western countries. The upper and lower floors are 73 meters wide and 42 meters deep. Brick-wood structure, sitting north facing south. In the middle of the upper floor, there is a church-style watchtower, which has a classic Western European architectural style and is extraordinary in style. The doors and windows are exquisitely lined, and the exterior walls are decorated with reliefs such as grass ears and lotus patterns, which look simple and elegant. There is another two-story structure building behind the main building. A row of red cottages on each side. There are two iron gates at the front exit, with gatehouses on both sides of the gate. A red low wall with iron grids extends from the gatehouse to both sides, and connects with the bungalows on the left and right sides and the parliament's office behind the main building to form a square courtyard. After the success of the Wuchang Uprising in 1911, the Revolutionaries set out to form the Hubei Military Government in accordance with the original plan. Because the General Administration of Hubei and Guangxi was damaged by the fire and could not be restored and used for a while, it was decided to use the office building of the Counseling Office as the office of the Dudu Government of the E Army of the Republic of China (the Hubei Military Government). The military government once performed the functions of the central revolutionary government. Therefore, the Yuemachang and Honglou became national revolution centers for some time, attracting attention at home and abroad.
In 1926, the Northern Expeditionary Army captured Wuchang, and the General Political Department of the National Revolutionary Army and the KMT Hubei Provincial Party Department were both located in the Red Building. The following spring, the first Provincial Congress of Hubei Farmers Association was held here, and Mao Zedong was hired as the honorary chairman of the conference. After the liberation of Wuhan on May 16, 1949, the Hubei Provincial Party Committee of the Communist Party of China also worked here.
In March 1979, Song Qingling, the Honorary President of the State, wrote the banner of "Wuchang Uprising Military Government Site" by hand. The fully renovated site in 1981 was designated as the Memorial Hall of the Wuchang Uprising of the Revolution of 1911. At present, the officially opened rooms include the restored conference hall, the residence and office of the governor of the military government, Li Yuanhong. The office buildings on the two wings of the original main building are furnished with auxiliary displays reflecting the 1911 Revolution and other temporary exhibitions related to the 1911 Revolution. Promulgated by the State Council as a national key cultural relics protection unit in 1961.
Centennial Old Street-Wu Hualin
Located at Wuhualin Historical Street in Wuchang, it is 1200 meters in length from Zhongshan Road in the east and Desheng Bridge in the west. There are as many as 35 ancient buildings and cultural sites in the surrounding area. It is a concentrated display of the old city in modern Wuchang and its centuries-old historical changes. , Is a living modern history of Wuchang.
Wu Hualin is a microcosm of Wuhan's modern culture, which reflects to a considerable extent the cultural history of Wuhan since its opening. Historically, there is a saying of "one lake and three mountains" in the Huahualin neighbourhood, that is, it faces Shahu in the north, Fenghuang mountain in the west, Huayuan Mountain and Crab Cape. Since modern times, this feng shui treasure land among foreigners and nobles has emerged, and various styles of buildings have emerged, forming a completely different scenery of Hua Hualin and elsewhere, and also constitutes Hua Hualin's special memory of this world. Most of Hua Hualin's existing historical buildings are built on the mountain or scattered between the three mountains, creating a natural and pleasant atmosphere. Many western buildings, celebrity villas, and ancient streets and lanes all have inexplicable simplicity and elegance. The former residences, celebrities, and dwellings of celebrities are mixed, witnessing the living environment and living environment of all strata at that time, reflecting the structural form and basic skeleton of historical streets and lanes, forming the ancient culture streets and lanes with distinctive characteristics of Huahualin. The most well-preserved historical buildings are traditional Chinese modern architecture, Western-style architecture, and Chinese-Western architecture, which formed the overall architectural style of Hualin, showing the characteristics of Chinese and Western blending.
Wu Hualin records the history of modern education and health development in China. In 1871, the former Anglican Church of the United States established Wenhua College at the current location of Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Hualin, Dongtou. It was the earliest school for foreign churches in Wuhan. On the old campus of Mandarin College, Ms. Wei Weihua, an American friend, founded the earliest public library in China here in 1901, and also founded China's first library professional school in March 1920. The two earliest students Wei Weihua cultivated here: Mr. Qiu Kaiming became the pioneer of the 20th century's greatest East Asian library and Huamei library scientist. Mr. Shen Zurong was hailed as "the father of Chinese library science education" at home and abroad.
At the same time, foreign church organizations also established early modern hospitals here. The current Affiliated Hospital of Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine is a merger of the former Renji Hospital run by the former Christian Church of London and the St. Joseph Hospital run by the Italian Franciscans. Lao Renji Hospital was founded in 1895. The existing main building and four annexes are brick and wood structures with a combination of Chinese and Western architecture. After 110 years of wind and snow, the entire building complex has been preserved intact. During the supervision of Zhang Zhidong, a hospital building group, there were as many as 10 new-type primary and secondary schools in the Huahualin area. Foreign church schools have also been built here, including as many as eight Western-style hospitals. The Chinese school and the western church school are across the street. Its rich cultural connotation and the school building that combines Chinese and Western cultures form a block culture featuring education.
Xi Hualin records the history of the collision and blending of Eastern and Western cultures. In ancient times, Hua Hualin was named for the prosperity of Buddhism and Taoism. After the opening of Hankou in modern times, foreign religions infiltrated Hua Hualin, began cultural colonization, and gradually formed an Italian parish dominated by Huayuan Mountain. The main British parish, the Swedish parish dominated by Crab Promontory, and the American parish dominated by Hua Huan Zheng Street. Numerous churches (mainly Catholic and Christian) passed down to Hualin Lin, leaving behind religious buildings with obvious characteristics of "fusion of Chinese and Western", which was a historical witness of the social process in China at that time. Currently preserved is the first Christian church in Chongzhen, Wuchang, founded in 1864. It was built by the famous missionary Yang Gefei and has high cultural relics. In addition, there are the Christmas Church built in 1871, the Garden Mountain Catholic Church built in 1891, the Nuns Chapel built in 1888, and the nursery church built in 1928. The Swedish parish and the Swedish consulate complex, built in 1890, have a high Nordic-style roof, romantic and gorgeous. The above-mentioned buildings have both pure foreign style and Chinese-Western style. The Zhai Jacob Gymnasium, located in Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, was built in 1921. It is a two-story building with a mix of brick and wood structures, a Chinese roof and a Western roof. It is one of the earliest three existing gyms in Wuhan.
Yun Hualin records the history of modern Chinese revolution. Here are the birthplace of the military songs of the Wuchang Uprising (Wenhua College), the birthplace of the Eighteen Star Banner (Liu Gongguan), the site of the anti-Qing dynasty revolutionary group "Huanggang Military Academy", the "Garden of Mountain Gathering Site" and the "Rizhihui" site There are also the former residences of the three celebrities of Xinhai (Shao Bochang, Xu Yuanquan, Xia Douyin), and the former residence of Shi Ying, one of the "Three Monsters in Hubei". Here are the residences and auditoriums of the early Communist Party leader Chen Duxiu who came to lecture in Han. The Wuhan Middle School that Dong Biwu founded here has walked out of the three "big" representatives of the party-Dong Biwu, Chen Tanqiu, and Li Hanjun. Here is He Long's military headquarters located in Wuchang before the Nanchang Uprising. Zhou Enlai represented the Communist Party of China and He Long for historic talks there, urging He Long to lead his troops to Nanchang to participate in the uprising. During the War of Resistance Against Japan, the former site of the three departments of the Political Department of the National Military Commission was still well preserved. Many national cultural celebrities such as Guo Moruo, Yang Hansheng, Hu Yuzhi, Tian Han, Hong Shen, and Ping Xinghai once gathered here.
Tan Hualin records Wuchang's history as an ancient city. Wu Hualin still keeps two Jiangxia dwellings, both of which are over a hundred years old, with simple walls and gates and the most traditional halls. They are simple and practical. In the courtyard of Shi Ying's former residence, there is also a section of the wall foundation of Wuchang's old city wall. The old city wall of Wuchang is built along the ridge of Crab Promontory, and Hua Hualin is displayed along the wall, forming a unique ancient city culture. To date, there are the remains of the fortress, the remains of the city wall, and the Zhengwei Yamen site. The chic Jiangxia houses and the ancient Wuchang city walls cherish the roots of the old Wuchang city.
Wuhan Ancient Academy
The academy was a teaching and learning place established by ancient private or government offices. The earliest academies can be traced back to the four major academies in the Song Dynasty, namely Bailu, Shigu (also called Songyang), Yingtian, and Yuelu Academy. Since the Ming Dynasty, the academy has been established for the Xiju sub-industry, and its number has increased sharply. In the fourteenth year of the Shunzhi reign of the Qing Dynasty, Yuan Langyu played to repair the Hengyang Shigu Academy, and the provinces were established in turn. The academies set up in the provincial capital are funded by the authorities to provide teachers and students with anointing fire. The teacher of the academy is selected by the governor and the scholars to hold both virtues and talents, regardless of the province or province. Apprentices in the academies combine the recommendations of the states and counties with the selection of the provinces to evaluate those who have achieved the fruit, before they are admitted to the hospital. Wuhan Academy is well-known as Wenjin, Jianghan, Qingchuan, Jingxin and Lianghu Academy.
Wenjin Shuyuan
Wenjin College, located in Xinzhou District, has a total of 387 scholars since the imperial examinations, and has been on par with the four major colleges including Bailu and Yuelu.
The Confucian Temple of Wenjin Academy started from Liu An, the king of Huainan. At that time, the Yi people dug up the Qin Li "Confucius Envoy Road Intervention Office" stone monument near the Confucius Mountain in Xinzhou. Liu An was obedient, so he built a pavilion and a Confucius temple at the excavation site of Wenjin Stele for sacrifice, and recruited scholars to teach books in the temple.
According to the old journal, from the Han Dynasty to the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, the Confucius Temple was worshipped and repaired by the government many times. Tang Wuzong Huichang was two to four years (842-844). At that time, Du Mu, who was the Huangshi prince of history (fuzhixinzhou), expanded the Confucius temple. "Wen Xuan Temple", and opened an altar to teach. The Jinghu system in the Southern Song Dynasty caused Meng Yue to repair the Confucius Temple. The great Confucian scholar Zhu Xi came to lecture, preach and teach, and presented poems to Confucius Temple. Shi Yun: "It's been ten years since Cang Yan looked at the mirror for a while. Lu Binglin has forgiveness and will pay for the remaining days." Zhu Zi is almost 70 at this time, and sometimes I do n’t like it.
At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, the famous Confucianists in Luling, Jiangxi, and Huguang in the late Southern Song Dynasty promoted Long Renfu and rejected the Yuan. He created the Wenjin Academy here, and he was called "Confucius Temple Temple" or "Longrenfu Academy." Wide open. The academy's lecture hall once said:
The sky is beautiful, and the words of Van Gogh are clear;
To leave rut, Qianqiu toast received a pass.
At the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Chen Youlang led a peasant uprising army to seize Xincheng Gaocheng, beating the generals Wu Yuandong and his son, and named the emperor in Gaocheng. When Zhu Yuanzhang attacked Chen Youliang in Xinzhou, the Confucian Temple and the Academy were destroyed in the flames of war.
At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, government education was emphasized, and imperial examinations were promoted. It was not until the age of adulthood that the official school was sparse and the imperial examinations were corrupted. The Wenjin Academy has undergone two large-scale reconstructions with the efforts of Shang Shugeng, Gong Shushushan, Huguang Governor Xiong Shangwen, Mingru Geng Theorem, Geng Dingli, etc. Xiong Shangwen uses the meaning of "Zilu Wenjin" to name the new plaque. The college is called "Wenjin College". Later, Xiao Jizhong and others set up branches in Henan Mall and Tangchi Jianwenjin. "At one time, Echeng, Hanshang, Hengshan, Liyang, and the first benevolent of Kyoto, the right-hand temple of Jiangyou, and the east forest of Wuxi, each of them clarified each other, and Wensheng Sheng was good at the world." (Qing "Wu Jin Yuan Zhi")
At the end of the Ming Dynasty, the Wenjin Academy suffered another puppet battle. After entering the Qing Dynasty, the Wenjin Academy became the official scientific research institute since Shunzhi, and the Academy was officially repaired and protected. Under the auspices of Jiangxi Guangxi, Jiang Yongxiu became one of the few academies in the country at that time. Kangxi and Jiaqing successively gave golden plaques of "Masters of All Time" and "Sacred Collection".
The Wenjin College has undergone several repairs and expansions over several generations, and its scale has grown gradually. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, the main building had the Dacheng Hall, the lecture hall, the yimen, and the two buildings on the left and right. In front of it there were the Wenchang Pavilion, Kuixing Tower, and the Bookstore. The entire building complex is surrounded by mountains and rivers, and the ancient trees are uneven, which makes it look quiet and elegant. The academies are symmetrically arranged, with the main building on the central axis and sitting north to south. The front of the gate originates from the water of the Wenjin River in the Dabie Mountains, and it is surrounded by mountains, surrounded by mountains, with beautifully carved stone carvings and nine corridors, which are connected to the temple; the temple ’s carved beams and paintings are elegant, and the wall paintings of the palace are all out The hand of a famous artist; the inscriptions and inscriptions of poets and poems of Mok Sao people all over the world can be found everywhere. The distance is magnificent, and the myopia door is magnificent and magnificent.
In the early Qing Dynasty, a group of anti-Qing hermits refused to join the government. In particular, Wanshi Mingzhi stated that "the father will not try, and the son will not test." Wan Erchang hurt himself on the way to the exam, and the court tried to destroy the ink papers, and he dropped the list to resist the Qing court. Until the twenty-ninth year of Kangxi (1697), the Wan family started to take the exam. According to records, from the 29th year of Kangxi to the 31st year of Guangxu, Wanzhou of Xinzhou has 35 contributors, 39 people and 11 jinshi, including 4 in Hanlin. They all came from Wenjin College. Wan Nanquan entered Wanjin to study at an early age. After being a junior junior, he was edited by Hanlin Academy. Liang Qianzhi and Liu Xie, the great ministers of the Qianlong Dynasty, came out. Later he was fired for impeaching university scholars Yu Zhen and Chen Bangyan. At home, Dumen thanked guests, and asked Jin, Yue Lu, and Jiang Han each. In the thirty-eighth year of Qianlong (1773), he served as the captain of Yuelu Academy and was one of the famous captains of the time. Among the many students at Wenjin College, Shunzhi Jinshi Chen Zhaochang learned a lot, and each of his five sons has achieved success. They all received credit and were called "five sons by the world." Because his father and son had six official seals, his village was called "six "Spoken", still in use today.
In the Qing Dynasty Kangxi Huguang Scholars Jiang Yongxiu wrote in the "Wujin Academy Tablet Preface" that "but Chuchu is talented, the world is dominated, and he is the crown of the yellow." Qian Shi, a great Confucianist in the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, said: "However, Chu County has its own talents." The so-called "Huang" refers to the three districts and counties of Xinzhou, Huangzhou and Tuanfeng today. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, Chu Huang was "the hero of the Chu style" in the country. According to historical records, Huanggang County was the top scholar in the junior middle school of Qing Dynasty. The jinshi and juren were the top counties in the province, and most of the gold list titles were asked students. Therefore, there is a chant in "Wujin Academy Fu": "... not only Yuelu and Songyang are out of reach, nor is Goose Lake or Ludong reachable. There are several generations of Chujiang who laugh thousands of miles; Who is it? "
Not long ago, Xinzhou District and a foreign consortium signed a cooperation agreement to invest 120 million yuan to jointly develop and repair the Wenjin College. Earlier, the royal plaque donated by Master Shi Nengxiu, an abbot of Shancaidong, Shanshan, Wutaishan, Shanxi Province, arrived at Xinzhou Wenjin College. This plaque is 5 meters long and 1.5 meters high and costs nearly 40,000 yuan. It took three years to complete and is a golden wooden plaque.书院大成殿原悬挂的康熙皇帝御赐“万世师表”镏金木匾和孔夫子塑像,“文革”期间被人捣毁。这块金匾将在问津书院整体修复后,重新悬挂在大成殿内。释能修法师还准备向问津书院捐赠两尊汉白玉孔夫子圣像。
江汉书院JianghanShuyuan
江汉书院系明代提学葛寅亮主持创办,以江、汉二水为楚地之望而定名。原址在武昌文昌门内。清顺治年间定为直省书院,迁至忠孝门内巡道岭(今粮道街武汉中学处)。康熙年间,巡抚陈洗、张连登等次第修葺,巡抚林天擎集多士肄业,捐赀供给。雍正年间,朝廷赐帑金千两,总督德沛又捐赀若干,规模有所扩大。学生主攻功令文、试帖诗、按月宫、师二课,官课从总督至武昌知府,每月讲课一次。后江夏县、汉阳县令亦来讲课。师课则院长每月讲课一次。官课考试有奖金,师课有膏火无奖金。1739年(乾隆四年)曾拓地扩建,内设十贤词,祀濂溪、二程、横渠、考亭、南轩、陈良、公孙龙、任不齐、赵复等;又有德教祠,祀肇建书院督抚司道及历次输资有功书院者。又有题名碑记,凡诸生中试者,皆镌名其上,以资鼓励。
江汉书院于1853年(咸丰三年)太平军占领武昌时被毁。1862年(同治元年)湖广总督官文和邑绅陈庆溥集资重建。1867年,书院山长雷以减呈请鄂督李鸿章批准,进行扩建,补修了斋舍,使肄业生员达2400名,课程内容主要是《四书》、《五经》及宋明先儒著作。次年,任湖北学政的张之洞到各府主持考试,将各府诸生才学优秀者送江汉书院肄业,除筹给膏火费外,还捐购经史书籍庋置院中,以便学生育习研摩,专务实学。1897年(光绪二十三年)已为总督的张之洞顺应时势,对书院进行重大改章,除传统课程外,又增设天文、地理、算学、兵法等科目。本院分教习多由经心书院分教兼任。1902年并入经心书院改为勤成学堂。
晴川书院与凤山书院QingchuanShuyuanYuFengshanShuyuan
晴川书院是汉阳府所属书院,1705年(清康熙四十四年)始建。院址初在汉阳南纪门内。1800年(嘉庆四年)汉阳知府刘斌利用赈济余款购置张姓民宅改建书院,院址遂迁至试院西(今群建路武汉三中处),“晴川书院”院名亦为刘斌手书。咸丰年间毁于战火。1865年(同治四年)知府钟谦钧率僚属集资重建,成为所属五县生童肄业之所。1903年(光绪二十九年)改为汉阳府中学前堂。辛亥革命后一度改为晴川中学。
汉阳凤山书院,原为明代赵蕾、蔡标读书处,当时名气不大。到清代复建,以古学课士,始有闻于时。后改为汉阳府中学堂后堂。
经心书院JingxinShuyuan
经心书院为张之洞任湖北学政时所设。当时他见原有江汉书院规模太小,不足以容纳多士,乃于1869年(同治八年)商请湖广总督兼署湖北巡抚李鸿章,在武昌三道街学署别建精舍课士之所。后改为文昌书院,院址迁火星堂文昌宫(今湖北实验小学后面)。到李鸿章督湖广时始定名经心书院。入院肄业学生由学政在各县诸生中亲自选拔调取。书院宽阔,住宿条件优越。学舍分经、义、治、事四斋,每斋20人,人各一室。课程有经解、史论、诗赋、杂著等。经心书院培养出不少高材生,当贺人驹、陈作辅、傅廷浩、范昌埭4名高材生病故后,张之洞亲自作诗哭悼,称《四生哀》,足见其重视人才。1891年(光绪十七年)湖北前学政赵尚辅等捐廉俸复将经心书院迁回学署右舍(今武汉市警官学校处),更名为经心精舍,规制仍旧。1897年书院改革,增设自然科学课程,叶青、姚炳奎、蒋克武、曹汝川等分任天文、舆地、兵法、算学分教。曾在书院任山长者有李寿榕、谭仲修,曾任监督者有吴兆太、纪相聪、刘鸿烈等人。1902年清廷下令书院改为学堂时,经心精舍与江汉书院一并改为勤成学堂。
两湖书院LianghuShuyuan
湖北书院名气最大者当属两湖书院。张之洞由粤督移任鄂督后,下车伊始,便视察经心、江汉各书院。时值大水刚过,经心书院地滨都司湖,水痕犹在,墙宇多倾圮;江汉书院屋舍狭小。经心书院监院诸人趁机禀报曰“二十年来积学好古之士多出其中”,纷纷请求重修书院。江夏(今武昌)县绅陈庆溥等愿以自己所有都司湖产业捐入书院,湖南旅汉人士亦请附入肄业。于是便定议重修。1890年(光绪十六年)在张之洞主持下建起两湖书院。经过培筑基址,修理水道,环湖建有斋舍200间。南斋10栋100间,为湘籍学生所居,以子、丑、寅、卯为名序;北斋10栋100间,为鄂籍学生所居,以甲、乙、丙、丁为名序;加设西斋2栋40间,供商籍诸生肄业,以戌、亥名之。开办之初,得茶商捐输,按茶价千分之一提取,每年得银1万余两,以为办学经费。后茶商有烦言,于是裁捐另筹。
1891年,张之洞札令湖北、湖南两省学使通饬各属,选调才识出群、志行不苟的秀才各100名入学,因茶商捐助办学,另收录茶商子弟40名。课程分经学、史学、理学、文学4门,还可兼习有关科目,另设算学、经济两门为兼习课。每月朔日为官课,望日为分教师课,称“朔课”、“望课”。各课延聘名师分教,著名的地理学家和书法家杨守敬、数学家和翻译家华蘅芳、音韵学家沈勇植以及易顺鼎、杨锐、汪康年、姚晋圻、周树模、陈三立、屠寄、邹代钩等名流都曾任教该院。两湖书院不设山长,而设提调一人主管,监院二人辅之。后改提调为院长,以梁鼎芬充任,继任者有蒯光典、王同愈、黄绍箕等。每月官、师二课,都严于考核,学生成绩提高很快。1893年乡试时,该院肄业生中试者达23人之多。
1896年仿学堂办法进行改革,月课改为日课,分经、史、舆地、算学4门,后又增设格致、兵法、体操等课。诸生按日上堂听课作笔记,分教按日查斋,管理严格。每学期大考一次,张之洞亲临主持。后改选调制为招考录取制,保证了生源质量。学制5年,合格者择优咨送请奖录用,不合格者令其归家。有一部分优秀学生还由官费送出国深造。自立军领导人唐才常、辛亥革命领袖黄兴等都曾是两湖书院学生。
1903年,两湖书院改为文高等学堂,亦称两湖大学堂。不久又称为两湖总师范学堂。
钟台书院ZhongtaiShuyuan
除了官办的各种书院外,商业繁盛的汉口还有不少商办书院,既是会馆、公所集议之所,又是商籍子弟读书肄业之处。
汉口钟台书院是咸宁商人的会馆,初名淦川公所(咸宁有条淦水河),道光中叶扩建,改名钟台书院(咸宁有座钟台山)。1854年(咸丰四年)毁于兵燹。1868年(同治七年)旅汉咸宁商人在县绅雷以诚的发动下,集资重修钟台书院,并购买房地产出租,以租金作常年经费,供给膏火和奖金开支。该书院选拔旅汉商人子弟之俊秀者入学读书。74岁的雷以诚亲自主讲。书院中供奉咸宁先贤唐代李邕(李北海)、宋代冯京(冯当世)及明代孟养浩之神主,岁时祭祀,以笃忠良而励后进。后改为立志中学和钟台小学。今为清芬幼儿园。
汉口的异国风情
汉口沿江大道一带,迄今仍林立着一批汉口开埠后修建的租界建筑,从古希腊式、古罗马式、拜占庭式,到哥特式、巴洛克式,直至文艺复兴式、折衷主义式,各个时期、各种流派的建筑风格交相辉映,堪与上海外滩相媲美。漫步其间,让人领略一派异国风情。
自1862年起,相继有英、俄、法、德、日五国在汉口开辟租界区,还有葡萄牙、荷兰、比利时等七国在此设立领事馆。至此,一幢幢欧式风格建筑在汉口拔地而起,至今尚遗存一大批欧式老建筑,如江汉关大楼,各国领事馆、工部局、公议局、巡捕房,以及洋行、公馆、教堂、公寓、商场、饭店等,其造型风格迥异,可谓千姿百态。还有不少中国官绅商以“挂旗”形式在租界修建公馆、里弄,其建筑多系仿西洋式或中西合璧式。
英租界的建筑物,特别是高层巨型建筑,较典型地运用18世纪在西方流行的古典主义手法。位于沿江大道的英国汇丰银行,建于1917年,由英国建筑师派纳设计,总建筑面积1万多平方米。大楼前段设两个营业大厅,构成大楼主体。立面空柱廊运用古希腊式的爱奥尼克柱式,显得庄重高大。建成于1924年的江汉关大楼,由英国建筑师设计,上海魏清记营造厂承建。大楼地基处在沿江大道与江汉路之交,设计师利用大楼构成两条尽端式道路,也构成两条街道与大楼的对景关系,从而丰富城市建筑空间,也有利于观察江面景观。大楼共分四层,高46.33米,总建筑面积4439平方米。大楼顶部钟楼典雅壮观,为英国建筑之特有风格。大钟由美国生产,由汉口亨达利钟表行安装。当年大钟除报时外,还定时鸣奏英国国歌《女王万岁》的主旋律。其立面设计的三段构图手法,表现出浓郁的古典主义风格;山花窗楣及入口半圆形拱门处理,则体现着文艺复兴主义风采。大门正门上方凿刻的“江汉关”三个大字,出自昔年湖北知名书法家宗彝之手。据说三字写好后,江汉关赠其润笔之资纹银500两,可谓一字千金。抗战期间,江汉关大楼曾被日机轰炸,至今痕迹犹存。江汉关大楼,曾一度是汉口城市的标志。古典主义风格的建筑,在清末民初的汉口租界风行一时。美国花旗银行、日本横滨正金银行以及中国的交通、金城及盐业银行,都是这种流风的表现。这几座大型银行建筑都属于西洋古典建筑风格,普遍采用希腊式的爱奥尼克柱式,柱形柔和修长,秀丽端庄。
其他具有异国风情的建筑也分布于租界内。位于今车站路口江边的原美国领事馆,建于1905年。这幢建筑采取曲线墙面,富有动感,三层结构均为半圆形砖拱窗,墙面红色,突破了文艺复兴与古典主义的常规,具有巴洛克式建筑特点。位于今市府大院内的原德国领事馆,兴建于1895年德租界开辟时,外墙拉毛,浅黄色涂料面,红瓦坡顶,带有日耳曼民居建筑风格。但在建筑的四角有四个像“萝卜头”的尖顶,这种尖顶在天津路旧俄国教堂也有,系西洋建筑中用来表现东方风格的一种形式。德租界的一些居民小宅,屋顶错落有致,局部设高尖顶,造型活泼,具有德国民居特点。
位于天津路的俄国东正教堂,外轮廓富有变化,墙面飘逸流动,具有拜占庭式风格。位于上海路的圣若瑟天主堂,以古罗马耶稣教堂为蓝本,采用拉丁十字巴西利卡式,系巴洛克式风格的代表性建筑。位于今车站路的法租界天主堂,则属于哥特式建筑风格,特别是其哥特式小尖顶,造型格外别致。位于今黎黄陂路口近侧的俄国使馆巡捕房,建于1902年,系两层砖木结构建筑,立面采取不对称手法,其双层拱窗带有文艺复兴意味,而拔高的塔楼又反映出俄罗斯的形态,故属于折衷主义的范畴。日租界中的房屋,多为两层砖木结构,屋面为日式的红瓦坡顶,屋尖部分常设暗顶。汉口的日本正金银行以及一些小别墅,皆具这一明治时代样式的日本风格。
始建于1900年的汉口大智门火车站,是卢汉(京汉)铁路南段的第一大站,也是汉口近代乃至建国后相当长一段时间内的主要客运站,至今保存较完好。它由法国人设计,正面临街,整座站房前后立面一样,呈山字形,中部大厅前后墙面设大型半圆拱窗,大厅四角厅部各有一圆尖顶塔,人称“法国四堡式”建筑。租界中也并存着不少现代型的“摩登”建筑,其手法不同于古典主义。一般主面采取大玻璃,采光面大,内部平面布局紧凑,功能扩大。像景明洋行大楼(今民主党派办公处)、天津路亚西亚大楼(今临江饭店)、安利英大厦(今胜利饭店)等,尽管仍有某些古典痕迹,但都带有明显的现代建筑色彩。
(未完待续)
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