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Longquan Celadon: Phoenix in Flames

Source: Time: 2020-01-28 19:16:38

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Traceability of Chinese Culture · Longquan Celadon
Longquan Celadon: Phoenix in Flames
Ye Huiyan Hongfeng, Guangming Daily (May 14, 2014, 04th Edition)
Longquan celadon "basket pot" works. Xiaochen / CFP
At the end of April, the book "Longquan Celadon Decorative Pattern" was published by Xiling Yinshe, which aroused the attention of many celadon enthusiasts. In the book, the collector Xiang Hongjin systematically categorized the patterns on the celadon pieces in the book. Among them, the exquisite patterns such as the decals of the "fish and dragon" in the Southern Song Dynasty kilns are amazing. The beauty of Cui Ningfang.
Entering Longquan City, Zhejiang Province, the reporter first visited the Longquan Celadon Museum. Designed by academician Cheng Taining, this museum is the largest professional celadon museum in China. The whole building looks like a picture of "porcelain rhyme scattered in the wilderness", and its shape is filled with celadon texture.
When you enter Longquan Celadon Museum, you are entering a period of legendary history.
Looking for "Saraton"
In 1957, before returning to China, an expert from the former Soviet Union asked for a "Snow Tong". What is "Saraton"? The Chinese receptionist looked blank.
"You Chinese porcelain!" Soviet experts said.
However, the relevant personnel ran all over the porcelain shops in Beijing, but could not find a "Snow Tong". The Chinese personnel searched for nothing, but the Soviet expert unexpectedly found that when visiting the Forbidden City, the expert pointed at a Songquan Longquan celadon vase in the Song Dynasty with excitement: "'Xue La Tong'!"
Why is Longquan Celadon Called "Saraton"? Ye Hongming, the former director of the China Ancient Ceramics Professional Committee, told reporters the story: In the 16th century, Longquan celadon was introduced to Europe, which swept high society, and the nobles and princes rushed to collect it. On April 19, 1717, King Augustus II of Saxony exchanged 127 pieces of Longquan celadon with 600 personal guards and King Prussia of William, which became an extraordinary event in the history of world diplomacy. To cherish these porcelains, August II also built a palace.
When Longquan celadon became popular in Europe, the famous play "Shepherdess Astellas" was also popular in Europe. The hero in the play is called Xue Latong. Whenever Xue Latong appears on the stage wearing a Tsing Yi, the audience will cheer unforgettablely: "Xue Latong! Xue Latong!" Facing the brilliant Chinese celadon, Europeans with a lot of associations began to call Longquan celadon "Xerantong".
Zhou Xiaofeng, deputy director of the Longquan Wenguang Publishing Bureau and director of the Longquan Celadon Museum, said that Longquan celadon originated from the Three Kingdoms and the Two Jin Dynasties and reached the peak of the Southern Song Dynasty. 4. Four unique skills for film control. The beauty of Longquan celadon is vividly summarized as "the purity of poetic style", the feelings of Chu Sao, the bone of Jian'an, the meaning of Tang poetry, and the meaning of Song Ci. Longquan celadon, the best brother kiln and brother kiln, have more reputation as "the flower of celadon, the country's famous pearl".
Longquan kiln is famous for continuing the longest history of porcelain making, the largest kiln volume, the widest export area in ancient times, the largest number, the deepest craftsmanship, the best product quality, and the highest international reputation. In the Song and Yuan Dynasties, Longquan became the national celadon production center and was called the "Celadon Capital". "Song Ge Kiln is a fine product in Longquan celadon," said Zhou Xiaofeng. "After the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Longquan celadon was declining. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were only a few porcelain kilns such as Sunkeng, Muqikou and Baoxi. Over time, yields are extremely low, and traditional techniques are on the verge of being lost. "
At that time, when Soviet experts returned home, they sighed, "In Xuelatong's hometown," Xuelatong "was not found!" Premier Zhou Enlai heard of this and paid great attention to it. He instructed that the production of the five famous kiln must be resumed as soon as possible. To restore Longquan Kiln and Henan Ru Kiln!
Reborn in the flames
The home of Xu Chaoxing, a national arts and crafts master and a well-known celadon expert, is a celadon world, and Bogu's shelves are full of his works. Xu Chaoxing entered the porcelain factory as an apprentice in 1956. In 1957, the Zhejiang Provincial Department of Light Industry organized experts and professors from the scientific research, production, art, cultural relics and archaeological departments to visit Longquan for archaeological and scientific research, and established the Zhejiang Longquan Celadon Recovery Committee and Trial Production Group. The porcelain factory took eight technicians to participate. Xu Chaoxing Just right there.
In the restoration of Longquan celadon, Li Huaide must be mentioned. In the "Shenghe" Celadon store in Longquan Celadon Porcelain Garden, the reporter saw Li Zhen, the owner born in 1973. He is the grandson of Li Huaide, a senior craftsman. He said that in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China, Longquan celadon was on the verge of annihilation, and only a few folk porcelain workers such as Li's "Shenghe" porcelain industry worked hard to guard the fire of the millennium Longquan kiln. At that time, Li Huaide was in charge of the "Shenghe" porcelain industry. The trial production team found Li Huaide and invited him to join, so Li Huaide became the technical backbone of the trial production team and also became the master of Xu Chaoxing.
Xu Chaoxing said that the restoration of Longquan celadon started from the first kiln. On the tenth anniversary of the National Day in 1959, the trial production team took on the task of producing porcelain for the banquet of the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. After more than one year of trials, Diyao finally succeeded in trial production.
The message that Diyao's successful trial production caused a shock at the meeting of directors of national departments held by the Ministry of Light Industry in 1959. Since then, the restoration committee of Chinese famous kilns has been established, and the work of restoring historical kilns has spread across the country.
In 1960, the trial production team resumed the experiment in Geyao. After years of hard work, Ge Yao was finally reborn in the flames in 1963.
Taking a drizzle, the reporter came to the Celadon Cultural Park. This is a production and tourism spot created by the provincial arts and crafts master Jin Yilin in 2012. You can watch the production on the spot, and let visitors make it themselves, allowing the audience to experience celadon. The process of making. In order to promote the development of celadon culture, Jin Yilin integrated art into daily-use porcelain. In 1999, he opened a celadon wine bottle factory. At present, his factory has become the largest celadon wine bottle enterprise in the country, with an annual output of more than 10 million wine bottles, and the output value in 2013 reached 150 million yuan.
Resurgence
In 2007, the 800-year-old South Song ship Nanhai No.1, which slept on the bottom of the sea, successfully released water. 60,000 to 80,000 cultural relics were found on this ocean-going merchant ship, including a large number of exquisite Longquan porcelains, which are national first- and second-class cultural relics , The preservation is good, the quantity is high, and the quality is unprecedented.
On September 30, 2009, UNESCO approved the Longquan celadon traditional firing technique to be included in the list of masterpieces of human non-heritage. This is the first ceramic item selected into the non-heritage in the world. In September 2010, the 44th Congress of the International Ceramic Art Society was held in Paris, France. The French Ceramics Biennale was held at the same time, with participation from more than 40 countries around the world. Longquan was invited to Paris to host "'Chinese artistic conception'-human non-material culture" Heritage Longquan Celadon Paris Exhibition ". "Saraton" reappeared in France, and the audience wrote on the guestbook: "Incomparable, beautiful!" "Saraton is breathtakingly beautiful!" "It's like seeing a lover!"
Cao Xinmin, member of the Standing Committee of Longquan Municipal Party Committee and Minister of Propaganda Department, introduced that the previous Longquan Municipal Committee and Municipal Government attached great importance to the inheritance of Longquan celadon. In 1999, it created the Celadon Sword Park and concentrated the city's celadon enterprises in the development of the park. The city's total output value of celadon reached 1.9 billion yuan.
After the Longquan celadon resumed firing, it returned to glory after more than half a century of development. On the basis of inheriting the tradition, modern Longquan celadon has drawn on its strengths and made dragon, phoenix, crab, shrimp and other patterns on the glazed surface. Use black tires and white tires with different tire colors, twist the tires into a spiral pattern, so that bowls and dishes are full of modern flavor, or use black tires as the base, and white tires as animal and plant pictographs to produce black and white with hazy effects. The combination of the tire and the decoration makes the utensils have a higher cultural taste and collection value.
At present, the Longquan celadon industry has 9 national and 16 provincial arts and crafts masters, and the team of arts and craftsmen is constantly growing.
Historically, Longquan celadon has spread to more than 50 countries and regions in the world, and has made outstanding contributions to cultural exchanges between the East and the West. At present, under the background of great cultural development and prosperity, Longquan Celadon ushers in its heyday. Cai Xiaochun, secretary of the Longquan Municipal Party Committee, said, "Like the previous declaration of 'human non-heritage', we must do a good job in the protection, inheritance and development of Longquan celadon, make 'Longquan celadon' a regional brand in the world, and make Longquan a world celadon cultural center again. And a unique cultural and creative economy city. "(Reporter Ye Hui Yan Hongfeng)

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