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Investigation report on left-behind children

Source: Time: 2020-01-28 19:32:42

Millennium Tongzhou vitality north stream

Source: 360 Q & A Summary: The problem of left-behind children has now become a social issue. Based on the needs of the project and our strong sense of social responsibility, we awakened field investigations and visits to the problem of left-behind children in some remote rural areas. Through this survey, we found that rural left-behind children have prominent problems in life, study, and psychology. To solve these problems requires the joint efforts and cooperation of families, schools, society, and the government. The problem of left-behind children is a new term that has emerged in recent years. With the rapid development of politics and economy, more and more young and middle-aged farmers have entered the cities, and a special group of minors has also emerged in the vast rural areas, which are left-behind children. Surveys show that the majority of local left-behind children are aged 0-14. After parents go out to work, they spend less time with the left-behind children and communicate less, far from meeting their role as guardians, and there is a lot of unsatisfactory intergenerational education, which can easily lead to this situation. Left-behind children are "hungry for their affections", and their mental health and personality are biased, and their learning is affected. When the problem of left-behind children in the local area is so serious, I have summarized several problems I found in the investigation as follows: 1. There is a serious "kindness and hunger" for left-behind children. Family comfort and care play a vital role in a child's growth. Most of the local left-behind children are in a period of rapid physical and mental development. They have their own understanding and awareness of their own changes and interpersonal communication. They also face many problems and concerns. They need to have channels to talk to and loved ones to comfort. However, because the parents of left-behind children have been working abroad for many years, it is difficult for them to make a phone call, write a letter, and meet once in half a year, a year, or even a few years. Give your child enough care. Some parents do not meet with their children for many years, so that their children forget the appearance of their parents, let alone have no affection. Second, most left-behind children's academic performance is low. Although many left-behind children also show strong desire to learn, the actual learning situation of left-behind children is not optimistic. From the overall survey situation, only 2% of left-behind children have excellent grades, 10% have medium-to-high grades, and 88%! This is mainly caused by the interference of psychological problems and poor self-control of learning. In our questionnaire, most of the left-behind children reported that no one was urging them to study, which reflected that the guardian's own attitude and ability weakened the role of the original family's supervision and affected the formation of their self-control. Third, psychological closure and emotional world issues. According to the survey, the guardians of left-behind children are less involved in the mental health issues of left-behind children and have not paid enough attention. Because they are far away from their parents, they lack at least the opportunity to communicate with their parents, and the guardians have no time to take care of their emotional changes. This is extremely detrimental to the mental health of left-behind children, and often triggers a variety of psychological disorders, such as emotional fragility, self-violence, anxiety, Lack of confidence and pessimism. 4. The proportion of accidental injuries caused by guardians' lack of protection awareness is large. Since most left-behind children are minors, they lack the awareness and ability to protect themselves, and they also lack the ability to respond to emergencies and the ability to help themselves. Without the direct supervision of their parents, they are vulnerable to abuse and use by criminals. In addition, many left-behind children have a long way to go to school, often waking up early to catch up, and their personal safety is worrying. 5. The behavior of left-behind children is poor. Most left-behind children have poor self-control ability and poor living habits, which are manifested in not talking about hygiene, changing clothes, picky eaters, and spending money; some left-behind children have poor behavioral habits and do not listen to caregivers at home. Hitting the ancestors, dissatisfied with management, doing their own thing. 6. The overall quality of the guardian is low. The survey found that most of the left-behind children's guardians are elderly, older, and less culturally educated, and some are illiterate or semi-illiterate. They do not know that they care about the child psychologically, take care of the child, cannot provide help and guidance in learning, and have an educational attitude. Educational methods are still the same, and there are difficulties in communicating with children. Local left-behind children generally have the above problems, of course, there are more problems that we need to find out by heart. These seemingly simple issues cannot be ignored. The problem of left-behind children is not just an education issue, it has gradually become a social issue. The solution of this problem requires the concerted efforts and coordination of families, schools, society and the government. In this regard, I have the following suggestions: 1. At present, most peasants in the family are not highly educated. They mistakenly think that it is the school's business to educate their children. Parents only need to give money and things to be a “logistics minister”. Parents have no responsibility with teachers and children themselves. They generally think that the quality of children's academic performance is determined by the child's personal qualities. Parents should change these incorrect thoughts, establish an education responsibility concept of "no child, no father," and make it clear that educating children is their own responsibility. The level of parents' own cultural level does not affect the education of their children. Even when working outside the country, we must take up the responsibility of educating children, form a joint force with schools and society, and do a good job of educating children. You should take the initiative to contact your child's teacher and village director to strengthen communication. Explain your situation to the teacher, understand the development and changes of your children, and discuss strategies and methods to educate your children, so as not to cause blind spots in the family education of "left-behind children." Parents should also strengthen contact with the "guardian" and communication between parents and children. Grasp the child's academic, moral, and physical health in a timely manner, and guide the child's learning and life in various ways. The "guardian" must ensure that the child has sufficient study time, and must be instructed to strictly meet the child's strict requirements and strengthen Life and academic custody. On the other hand, there should be multiple ways to pay attention to communication with children. The shorter the interval of communication, the better, to ensure that you are familiar with the child ’s life, education and psychological changes. The content of the communication is to be comprehensive and meticulous. Parents should express their love and hope for the child in the communication, and hope that the child can understand their family situation. Communicate with the status quo to understand your child's life, learning, and emotional changes; communication methods can be diversified. In addition to telephone calls, correspondence can be used to communicate. Every child is a flawless "Jadeite". As long as their hearts are filled with the love of their parents and relatives, they have a positive driving force and will learn better and do better. Second, the school (1), establishment Improve the files of left-behind children to inform their guardians and migrant parents of their growth in a timely manner, forming a situation of joint education between schools and families. Teachers should shoulder some of the responsibilities of parents or guardians, communicate more with left-behind children, increase intimacy and trust, and give more care and positive guidance. (2) To provide convenience for communication with left-behind children. A family hotline can be opened to facilitate communication between migrant parents and their children. Weighing the pros and cons, it is best to establish closed education. 3. Social aspects Purify the social environment and strengthen the supervision and management of the surrounding environment of the school, especially Internet cafes, game halls, video halls, etc. These unfavorable social environments have great appeal to children with poor self-control, and are prone to mistakes. Astray. In short, the problem of left-behind children is a comprehensive issue that involves both education and psychological, social, legal, and economic aspects. If these problems cannot be resolved in a timely manner, it will not only affect the growth of the children, but also affect their parents' ability to work at ease outside. It will also affect the safety and stability of the society. Therefore, the fundamental way out for the education and growth of left-behind children in rural areas is that the whole society can recognize the seriousness and importance of this problem, so that everyone can spontaneously care for, help and support left-behind children, improve the level of rural education, The healthy growth of children creates a good social environment, so that the flowers of the motherland are full of vitality, looking forward to the day of bloom. Investigation Report on Left-behind Children
Source: Source: Tencent Public Welfare Responsible Editor: cuihuiping According to the "China Youth Daily" report in "They Are the Most Vulnerable People in China Now," Hetang Town, Lianyuan City, Hunan Province, suffered a severe flood and 12 children Died, of which 11 were "left-behind children". According to data, the detection rate of left-behind children's psychological problems is as high as 57.14%, and the longer the parents work, the more serious the child's psychological problems are. Although they seem to have nothing to do with us living in the countryside, who can ignore their existence and future impact on society? Left-behind children are not just a group of people without parental care. They are orphans of this era. Their growth is closely related to China's future. Left-behind children are a group of "institutional orphans" that have been loosening China's long-term urban-rural dual system. On the one hand, their parents work hard in the city to earn money and win or obtain another way of life; on the other hand, they In the cities, or if they cannot guarantee themselves, or where there is no cone, they cannot bring their children into the city and stay with them. At the same time, in order to live or survive, they cannot easily leave their work and cannot easily leave the city. It is in this dual contradiction that they cannot bring back and cannot return. Although left-behind children have parents, they still have to accept The reality of "separation". Orphans in this era have long been fostered or fostered, and their lack of parental love can easily lead to heart defects. Due to the dodging of the elderly or the negligence of relatives and friends, lack of correct value guidance, children are the future and hope, and China cannot ignore their existence. They are related to the entire rural education and social progress. Lu Xun once called for "save the children", now it is time to "save" the left-behind children. Basic situation of left-behind children in Henan Province During the summer vacation, a targeted questionnaire survey was conducted on 1,000 left-behind children (aged 6-14 years old) in 18 regions of Henan Province. As we all know, Henan is the country with the largest population and agriculture in the country. With the development of society, Henan has gradually become the largest province for exporting labor services. There are about 35 million laborers engaged in agriculture in the province, and 15.57 million people have worked outside the home for more than half a year, thereby making Henan's per capita income an important way for Henan people to escape poverty and become rich. At the same time, subject to objective conditions such as household registration, economy, and residence, most of their children receive education in their hometown, or live in a "single-parent family" supported by one parent or are supported by grandparents, relatives, and friends. Some children even stayed at home alone, thus forming a huge "left-behind children" team. According to incomplete statistics, at present, 2.247 million left-behind children under the age of 14 in rural Henan accounted for 10% of the total number of left-behind children in the country. The following is the data obtained from our survey, hoping to provide some reference for our decision makers: 23.9% rarely contact with parents 79.3% think that a happy family should stay with their parents 76.5% want parents to be wrong 62.0% 8.4% of head-to-head confrontation when criticized 12.3% of gangsters and fights 17.5% of friends who have no friends in school 40.0% of people who are afraid of strangers 45.5% of people who have trouble solving problems with their grandparents 43.5% feel very ordinary 52.7% learn to listen to the teacher, very hard 25.3% feel that people around them don't care too much about themselves 49.1% are always afraid of being bullied by others 34.7% feel that the society is unfair and ca n’t see hope 11.9% From the above statistics, it can be seen that a considerable number of left-behind children long for the care of their parents and hope to have more spiritual exchanges with their parents. Some feel discriminated, helpless, and pessimistic because their parents are not at home. And some data show that the detection rate of left-behind children's psychological problems is as high as 57.14%, and it is urgent to solve the mental problems of left-behind children in rural areas! The mental health problems of left-behind children, the analysis of their causes, and the social problems that have arisen The mental health of left-behind children is becoming a serious social problem. Lack of family, lack of family education, lack of school safety, and lack of family supervision are the main reasons for the mental health problems of left-behind children. The government, family, and school are the main measures to solve the problem. The rural left-behind children group is a subsidiary product brought by the process of transferring a large number of rural surplus labors to cities. Due to the existence of objective factors such as the low level of rural economic development and inadequate social security at this stage in China, and the long-term lack of parental care and effective education, guidance and management, left-behind children often have a psychologically uncomfortable feeling. Serious ones will lead to the development of psychological malformations and behaviors that show different degrees of deregulation and deviance, and there will be a certain "left-behind children syndrome". With 23 million left-behind children nationwide, their mental health has become a social issue that cannot be ignored. According to the results of a survey, mental health problems are the most common problems for left-behind children, and they are hidden, difficult to find but far-reaching. The main manifestations are as follows: 1. Weak and introverted personality. Left-behind children leave their parents when they are young. Parental care is seriously lacking. Although some are supervised by grandparents or relatives, after all, they are different from parents. After some trouble, they will feel weak and helpless. Over time, they become unwilling to communicate with people. Introverted. It was found in the survey that 21.1% of migrant parents contacted their children about once a week, and 34.1% contacted once a month or rarely. Many parents go home more than half a year, and some do n’t even go home for a few years. This long-term separation of parents leads to their children's inferiority and closedness, and their psychology is serious. Second, inferiority psychological barriers. Most children have a mentality of comparison and strong pride, and their parents are not as if they have lost their strong dependence and protection. Therefore, compared with children with parents around, they are more likely to have psychological barriers to inferiority, and some even violently give up. Lose confidence and do not strive for improvement. According to the survey, only 15% of children are able to learn consciously, and most children need to be supervised to learn. Many children are addicted to the Internet, abandoned their studies, and left the community without completing compulsory education. Third, loneliness and boredom. Parents' outing makes children feel empty and lonely at home, which causes problems such as psychological disturbance and depression. A third-year girl wrote in her diary: "Mom, do you know? Since you and your dad and younger brother have gone, how lonely and sad I have been at home alone. Since you left I hardly ever laughed, how much I missed the time we spent together. "This lonely mentality will inevitably lead to spiritual emptiness, and then to exceptional behavior. Fourth, blind resistance and rebellious psychology. Left-behind children always feel that others will bully him because of lack of protection. A little thing is taken seriously, and they are alert and even hostile when communicating with others. For teachers and temporary guardians, there is a strong rebellion. The survey showed that 54% of left-behind children have conflicts with their temporary guardians, of which 15% often have. 53% of left-behind children said they were helpless in learning difficulties. 39% of left-behind children reported being bullied by classmates. Fifth, a feeling of resentment against parents. A few children do not understand their parents and think that their families are poor and their parents do not have the ability to go out to work, which leads to resentment. Some children alienate their parents after they go home, create emotional separation with their parents, and even resent their parents' ruthlessness. As for the psychological problems that children have, the younger they are, the more prominent the problems are. Girls are more prominent than boys. So what causes the psychological problems of left-behind children? First, the "blind zone" of guardianship. From the survey situation, the left-behind children ’s family generation education accounted for 43.5%. Because the age difference between ancestors and grandchildren is generally about 50 years old, and most of the ancestors have low education, most of them are illiterate or semi-illiterate. There is a big gap, it is difficult to communicate with the children, some have to do farm work to maintain their lives, have no time to take care of the children, some are frail and ill, and are unable to monitor the children, while others take care of several grandchildren at the same time, have no energy to take care of the children, and lack of scientific family education knowledge , Often only meet the child's material and daily needs, lack of spiritual and moral education and guidance, and even spoiled and allowed to flow. Intergenerational education is clearly inadequate. About 4.7% of left-behind children are entrusted to the supervision of relatives and friends such as uncles, aunts, or friends. Main features: The guardian usually puts the safety of the child first, followed by academic achievement and material satisfaction, while paying less attention to the development of children's behavioral habits and psychological and spiritual needs. Relatives and friends usually also have children. Due to the unfair treatment, left-behind children often have inferiority complex because they feel that they are "foreigners." Some of them go to boarding schools, and older children are self-managed. According to survey statistics, this type accounts for about 2.3%. Generally, children are about 14 years old, mostly junior high school students. Main characteristics: Parents feel that they owe too much children for a long time, so they try to meet their children's needs in terms of finances and materials, while paying less attention to other needs of the children. Since these left-behind children are in the early stages of adolescence, they are susceptible to external influences and have more problems. The rest are types raised by a father or mother at home. According to survey statistics, single parental guarding accounted for 49.5%. Main features: Inadequate caring and love, lack of paternal or maternal love, resulting in lack of paternal or maternal love education. For example, children whose fathers go out show timidity and lack of self-confidence; children whose mothers go out show carelessness and lack of friendship. Left-behind children are at an age that requires care and supervision. The lack of supervision will inevitably lead to problems. Second, there are “misunderstandings” in home and school education. Parents feel guilty because they are unable to take care of their children for a long time. Most of them take the "material (money) + laissez-faire" approach to compensate. Occasionally they call and contact only to ask about their children's learning, and they pay attention to their children's ethics and legal education. Fewer, which causes children to be happy and toil, extravagance and waste, to show off, and to generate ideas such as "gold worship". According to the survey, some left-behind children are tired of school, lack the spirit of enterprising and hard work, do not strive for progress, and generally have poor grades. Because of the special nature of the guardian, as long as the child does not make a big mistake, the guardian generally does not ask about his behavior, so the lack of timely and effective restraint and discipline has led to the lack of discipline of some left-behind children, poor moral conduct at school, failure to abide by rules and regulations, lateness, Absent from school, truancy, obsessed with "Internet cafes", etc., even mixed with some people with bad habits in the society, but the school is powerless in supervision. [1] At the same time, because most rural schools are affected by China's traditional education model, they have not seriously conducted mental health education for students. Over time, we cannot but worry about their future. Third, there is a "minefield" in the social environment. For children with poor environmental adaptability and weak self-control, it is important to strengthen safety protection. Due to the “vacuum” in the safety education connection between schools and families, schools cannot be small, and guardians generally lack the awareness and ability of safety protection, so that criminals have the opportunity to leave children left behind to hurt people or Injured incidents happen from time to time. Throughout the country, left-behind children have frequent accidents such as drowning, electric shock, and fighting, and even vicious cases of trafficking and violations are often reported. Family relationships have a direct and important impact on children's behavioral habits, mental health, personality and intellectual development. Because the parents are not around, the left-behind children have long lacked the comfort and care of affection, often feel anxious, nervous, insecure, and have poor interpersonal skills. When separated from their parents for a long time, their characters often become introverted, inferior, pessimistic, and lonely. The survey shows that the guardians are less involved in the mental health problems of left-behind children and they are not paying enough attention: Due to the psychological distance from the guardians, the emotions of left-behind children often cannot be resolved in time when they encounter problems, which often leads to emotional weakness, self-violence, abandonment, and anxiety , Lack of self-confidence, pessimistic negative and other abnormal psychology. The psychological problems of left-behind children can easily cause them to lose their standard of behavior, cause illegal acts and affect the safety and stability of society. According to a survey by the Ministry of Public Security, the two "most" cases of minors being victimized and committing their own crimes are mostly in rural areas, most of which are left-behind children. The survey also showed that 80% of rural left-behind children have minor or severe psychological barriers. A recent survey released by the China Social Research Institute in Beijing also revealed that more than half of parents apparently felt their children remained silent and lonely after being left behind; 30% of parents knew that their children had made bad friends and often caused trouble. A survey by Central China Normal University in Hubei shows that 90% of teachers believe that rural left-behind children have serious problems in both learning and living; parents are not around, and it is difficult to find children of this age from the eyes of their lack of fatherly love The kind of innocence and liveliness that they deserve, they generally mature prematurely, but they always want the irreplaceable caress of their parents. [2] Rural children are also the builders of the future of our motherland. If the monitoring of children is in a vacuum or semi-vacuum state, and they will lose the warmth and education of their families, the consequences will be disastrous. As rural left-behind children appear in the "trinity" education chain of parents, schools, and society, there is a "fault", so it is very easy to produce life helplessness, academic helplessness, behavioral out-of-control, moral immorality, and psychological imbalance. Antisocial personality. During the investigation, we learned that a boy, 15 years old, had remarried his young mother, and his father took him and his sister to live. Forced to make a living, his father went out to work, leaving his sister and his underage to be taken care of by his grandma. The special growing environment made him drop out of school early before he graduated from elementary school and started working in a steamed bread factory. The three fingers of one hand were accidentally interrupted by the machine. A physical disability made him lonely and unwilling to associate with other children. Not only that makes us sad, but his moral conception is very weak: After leaving the steamed bun factory, he went to work as a buddy in a small family factory. Once his grandmother was uneasy to visit him and leaked his name to everyone, he scolded him Grandma was "old and dead", and there were other unbearable words. He was still scolding after his grandmother left, as if his grandma had committed an unforgivable sin. Some people around sighed and some laughed. How should we feel and what should we do? Who should be responsible for his tragic life? It is found through investigation that left-behind children rarely develop fully. Their academic performance and moral development are not satisfactory. The learning performance of left-behind children is generally worse than that of non-left-behind children. Most of the "dual poor students" are produced by left-behind children, which is a common problem between schools and teachers. Due to the lack of careful parental supervision, and the head teacher can't cover everything, a considerable part of the left-behind students lack of self-consciousness in learning, making friends has no choice, like grouping and fighting, spending money, not knowing diligence and thrift, and no ability to distinguish right from wrong , Mixed with young people in society, involved in theft, obsessed with the Internet, and some even early love. I have seen such a report: a 13-year-old girl gave birth to a baby in an Internet cafe. What a ridiculous fact that a child gives birth to a child! Left-behind children face more security risks and external nuisances due to lack of guardianship. Most of the left-behind children are timid and lonely. The “unmixed” in the society often treats them as prey. Some are extorting money and money (mostly by drug addicts). Some instigates even force them to provoke trouble. Others are left behind Girls are sexually harassed, and incidents of sexual assaults are not uncommon among left-behind girls. The left-behind children have a weak legal concept, and their moral qualities are worrying. Due to the lack of statutory guardianship duties of parents, insufficient supervision by temporary guardians, and the lack of necessary education and guidance, the bad atmosphere in society has had a negative impact on left-behind children. Some of the left-behind children's outlook on life and values deviated from the right direction. Many left-behind children cheated and lied, formed gangs, and bullied classmates, and more left-behind children had illegal acts such as petty theft, fights, and extortion. According to survey data, 38.09% of left-behind children during compulsory education performed well, 43.97% performed well, 14.95% had disciplinary violations, and 0.15% had illegal behaviors. According to statistics from the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League, there are about 23 million left-behind children nationwide, accounting for 20% of rural children nationwide. This proportion will be higher in Sichuan, Chongqing, Anhui, Henan and other places, reaching 50% or even 70%. [3] At least 34,500 left-behind children will commit illegal acts. It is self-evident that these left-behind children have grown up harmful to society. The Party Central Committee is vigorously calling for the construction of a new countryside. So many left-behind children are extremely detrimental to the construction of a new countryside in our country and the construction of a harmonious and stable social environment. They need the care and help of the whole society. We are gratified that with the convening of the two sessions this year, the issue of left-behind children has attracted more and more attention from the participants. People's Daily Online, Beijing, March 2 reporter Zhao Ying reported: "The State Council supports the All-China Women's Federation and unites 14 departments of the Central Government to set up a special working group for left-behind children in rural areas to specifically address the situation of left-behind children in rural areas ...", this It shows that the work of left-behind children in the countryside has been taken care of and managed by anyone. As long as there are people in charge of any difficulties, they can do their work well and ensure that they are implemented. There are about 23 million left-behind children in rural areas in our country. Problems in life, psychology, personal safety, growth education and other issues have increasingly drawn public attention. Just as Gu Xiulian, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and chairman of the All-China Women's Federation, believes that it is necessary to establish left-behind children For the long-term protection mechanism of the problem, the state must do six tasks: The first task is to strengthen investigation and research. First of all, we must understand in time what problems there are in the growth and development of left-behind children. Based on what we know, analyze the reasons for the existence of left-behind children and explore solutions to it. The second task is to formulate related policies. Left-behind children in rural areas Because of the development of our industry and the process of urbanization, many migrants are urban problems, so there are left-behind children. I think it is a social problem that exists in a fairly long historical period, so we have to solve it from the legal policy level, from the mechanism and system level. The third task is to improve a working mechanism. The working mechanism must form the party committee and the government to strengthen leadership, and all departments should take charge of co-management, and then ensure that the work of left-behind children in the countryside is managed and managed. I have a lot of confidence. They can get the job done, so make sure they do. The fourth task is to expand publicity. Give full play to the role of the mainstream media and various propaganda media positions, and let them publicize the guidelines, policies, and legal measures for protecting children. In addition, we must also publicize our good experience and good ways of solving left-behind children. At the same time, the advanced elements of left-behind children and the advanced families of left-behind children must be commended for mobilizing them with their experience and methods. In this way, people from the whole society can be mobilized to pay attention to our left-behind children in rural areas and take care of their affairs. I think this problem can be solved. The fifth task is to mobilize the support of the whole society. Now we have to play the role of the "five olds" who care about the next generation of committees, and play the roles of volunteers, rural party members, outstanding teachers, and village cadres. In addition, we now work for families in the city, we have handled "agent mother", "agent father", and other supervision systems. At the same time, we also educated grandma and grandpa on modern children's knowledge, so that they can play a better role. The sixth task is to safeguard rights and interests in accordance with law. That is to further strengthen law enforcement. We must strengthen law enforcement, crack down on violations of children and juveniles, and bring crimes to justice. Gu Xiulian said that in fact, all fronts are now addressing the problem of left-behind children. Recently, the State Council set up a system of joint conferences for migrant workers, and unified the planning of rural children's issues. At present, all departments, except the central government and the State Council, are paying attention. For example, the public security department also issued a notice to protect the rights of minors and crack down on crimes against minors. The Ministry of Education must regard the education of minors as left-behind children and enrollment as important issues. The All-China Women's Federation has launched parent, school, and family education guidance centers from top to bottom, and it also concerns the problem of left-behind children who love the countryside. For example, in April, the Women's Federation wrote a question about what to do with left-behind children. They conducted an action to care for left-behind children. This action benefited 2409 towns and towns with 390,000 left-behind children. Now they are doing it everywhere. For example, in Jiangsu and Fujian, they have included left-behind children in boarding schools, ... to solve the problem of establishing a mental health education model for left-behind students and solve their problems. Through this survey, we found that some left-behind children have major psychological problems. Many of their parents have been migrant workers for many years, and they rarely have the opportunity to communicate with their children. They do n’t know what the child really thinks. Therefore, we should let parents see the psychological problems that their children have, and let them know that their children ’s psychological effects are not caused by their children. What kind of impact and what kind of consequences are there, so as to truly understand the child's psychological thoughts, wake up in the misunderstanding that they want to earn money and pave the way for their children to become successful, and see what children need most. Therefore, we should guide the parents of left-behind children, make them live with their children as much as possible, and give them the most appropriate help and guidance. For children, parents have been working outside the home for a long time, and this period is the stage when their values are initially formed. In such a growth environment, some children will become strong, but some have formed traits such as autism and unwillingness to communicate with others. feature. Therefore, schools and families should cultivate their self-reliance so that they will not shrink back in the face of difficulties and setbacks. The absence of parents is a test, and schools can use this to develop children's ability to live independently and allow them to understand their parents' hard work. In our investigation, we learned that some migrant workers have tried to take their children to work places to go to school, but the threshold of good schools in big cities is too high. Schools for children of migrant workers are not as good as their home schools. In addition, the state has now implemented compulsory education in rural areas of the country to eliminate fees. Most people choose to have their children read at home. We believe that this phenomenon can be solved from the following aspects: First, lower the threshold of urban schools so that children of migrant workers can enjoy equal opportunities to go to school with children in the city. Second, increase investment in migrant worker schools, improve software and hardware construction, and improve teaching quality. Third, encourage social investment to build such migrant worker schools, so that more migrant worker children have the opportunity to learn and live under the care of their parents. Fourthly, the development of rural boarding schools will allow those left-behind children whose education and living cannot be guaranteed to attend boarding schools to give them more care and make up for the lack of family education. The problem of left-behind children involves a wide range of issues. Its impact is as important as solving it. It is also a measure to care for migrant workers and ensure their peace of mind in migrant workers. Therefore, we must not stop at the level of appeals. We should solve it from the education management system, policies and regulations. Society, school and family work together to promote their mental health development. Therefore, based on the above analysis of the causes of mental health problems of left-behind children and their understanding of the psychological status of left-behind children, in order to better allow those left-behind children to grow up healthy and happily, we have proposed the establishment of mental health education models for left-behind children . (I) Family Articles 1. Choose carefully. Parents should think twice before going out to work, think more about their children, and their future is more important than money. If the family's economy is really difficult, the more educated party can be left to guard their children at home. The mother is usually the mother. The mother is attentive and patient, and the child is more willing to communicate with them.父母都外出务工的,如果条件允许,可让其在打工地接受义务教育。 2、定期“温馨对话”。在外打工的父母,一定要及时了解子女的近,一方面利用书信或电话定期与孩子进行进行交流沟通,让孩子感到父母的关爱,家庭的温暖,另一方面向老师和临时监护人即使了解孩子学习生活等个方面的情况。 3、寻找“代理”。如果家庭经济确实困难,需要父母双双外出务工而祖父母又没有能力照看孩子的,父母可在亲戚朋友中为孩子寻找“代理妈妈”。 “ 代理妈妈”既可以辅导孩子学习,又能够培养孩子良好的行为习惯,对孩子进行思想道德教育。 (二)、学校篇1、实行留守学生的普查登记。各中小学校在新学期学生报道时将父母外出情况和家庭成员情况逐一进行登记,建立“留守儿童”档案。记录“留守儿童”的个人情况和监护人及临时监护人的情况,准确掌握留守儿童的个人信息,为有针对性的开展教育和管理工作奠定基础。 2、充分发挥学校教育主阵地的作用。在中小学校普及实行教职工结对帮扶或学生结对帮扶留守学生制度,建立“留守儿童之家”,使留守儿童体会到家庭的温暖。建立健全教师家访和与留守儿童谈心制度。定期召开帮扶教师、留守儿童、临时监护人座谈会,引导留守儿童健康成长。开设亲情电话,让留守儿童的父母知道校长、班主任等老师的电话,加强学校、家长和孩子之间的联系和交流。 3、营造健康向上的校园文化氛围。积极开展形式多样的教育活动,有序的培养学生的文明习惯,组织学生广泛参加社会实践活动,把乡土文化引进课堂,形成有地方特色的校园文化氛围。建立和推行中小学生综合素质评价体系,把评价过程变成教育引导的过程,对学生产生约束力,实现由纪律和自律的转变,为留守儿童营造一个宽松和谐的学习环境。在学校举办的活动中,多把机会留给留守学生,帮助他们走出自闭的心理障碍,帮助他们改正不良的行为习惯,树立正确地人生观和价值观。 4、开展心理咨询活动。重视心理健康教育课,建立心理咨询辅导站。特别是班主任要及时发现孩子的心理问题,与由心理障碍的学生进行交流。及时排除他们心理上存在的问题。帮他们养成健康的,积极向上的心态。 5、注重培训。尽可能对临时监护人介绍一些教育孩子的常识,开展一些座谈会,让他们了解孩子,更好的引导和教育孩子。同时,要充分的利用春节外出务工人员返乡的“黄金季节”,召开家长会。 left behind children
来源:摇篮网>知识>育儿百科
在中国有这样一个群体:他们的父母为了生计外出打工,用勤劳获取家庭收入,为经济发展和社会稳定作出了贡献,但他们却留在了农村家里,与父母相伴的时间微乎其微,包括内地城市,也有父母双双外出去繁华都市打工。这些本应是父母掌上明珠的儿童集中起来便成了一个特殊的弱势群体———留守儿童。 留守儿童问题是近年来一个突出的社会问题。随着中国社会政治经济的快宿迁市宿豫区妇联开展留守儿童情况调研工作速发展,越来越多的青壮年农民走入城市,在广大农村也随之产生了一个特殊的未成年人群体——农村留守儿童。留守的少年儿童正处于成长发育的关键时期,他们无法享受到父母在思想认识及价值观念上的引导和帮助,成长中缺少了父母情感上的关注和呵护,极易产生认识、价值上的偏离和个性、心理发展的异常,一些人甚至会因此而走上犯罪道路。 根据权威调查,中国农村目前“留守儿童”数量超过了5800万人。57.2%的留守儿童是父母一方外出,42.8%的留守儿童是父母同时外出。留守儿童中的79.7%由爷爷、奶奶或外公、外婆抚养,13%的孩子被托付给亲戚、朋友,7.3%为不确定或无人监护。 留守儿童多由祖辈照顾,父母监护教育角色的缺失,对留守儿童的全面健康成长造成不良影响,“隔代教育”问题在“留守儿童”群体中最为突出。据调查显示,父母外出打工后,与留守儿童聚少离多,沟通少,远远达不到其作为监护人的角色要求,而隔代教育又有诸多不尽如人意处,这种状况容易导致留守儿童“亲情饥渴”,心理健康、性格等方面出现偏差,学习受到影响,给这些可怜的孩子留下了一生的遗憾,有的甚至走向犯罪的道路。 由于地理和历史等原因,我国不同区域的经济发展很不平衡,农村人地矛盾尖锐。在市场经济迅猛发展的推动下,大量农村剩余劳动力为改变生存状况外出务工,其中大部分为夫妻一同外出,因经济等原因无法将子女带在身边,由此引发“留守儿童”问题。留守儿童问题是我国现代化进程中的一个独特的社会问题,是社会主义新农村建设的又一障碍,严重影响了留守儿童的健康成长,已引起全社会的关注。中国留守儿童现状
中国农村留守儿童现象的产生来自于家庭和社会两个方面。一方面,家庭的贫困,使孩子的父母不得不走出农村到城市务工;另一方面,中国长期的城乡二元制以及社会对“农民工”不公平的待遇,使广大农民没有办法及能力带着孩子一起走进城市。
Overview
中国留守儿童约5800万人。
中国进城务工的农村劳动力约1.3亿人。根据2005年中国1%人口抽样调查的抽样数据推断,中国农村留守儿童约5800万人,其中14周岁以下的农村留守儿童约4000多万人。和2000年相比,2005年的农村留守儿童规模增长十分迅速。在全部农村儿童中,留守儿童的比例达28.29%,平均每四个农村儿童中就有一个多留守儿童。
2012年9月教育部公布的《2011年全国教育事业发展统计公报》显示,2011年全国义务教育阶段在校生中进城务工人员随迁子女共1260.97万人,这较之于2010年增加了93.79万。
随迁子女平等受教需一个过程
新京报:近日,中央提出各地要在年底前提出解决“随迁子女”异地升学的办法,这会不会进一步扩大“随迁子女”的规模?
储朝晖(中央教育科学研究院研究员):我认为会扩大,北上广会适度地增长。上海等大城市要在放开了义务教育阶段门槛的情况下,现在也要放开高中阶段教育的门槛了。
当然,现实中父母的流动还是因为哪里挣钱到哪里去,然后带着孩子出来了。现实中即便放开,山东青岛人也不一定乐意到外地读书,这里经济发展比较好。我觉得最根本的还是得解决人与人之间权利和机会的平等,这样才能彻底缓解大城市的压力。
新京报:“随迁子女”规模的扩大,城市是否做好了接纳的准备,尤其是高中阶段教育方面?
储朝晖:准备还是不够充分。在义务教育阶段已经实行“流入地为主”,这样的政策出台这么些年了,但仍有一些地方做得并不好。这样“随迁子女”升学办法出来后,城市接纳随迁子女的高中阶段教育估计至少得五年。
新京报:现在虽然提出了“随迁子女”义务教育后升学办法的解决方案,但各地落实的前景会不会乐观呢?
储朝晖:当然首先得肯定这跨了一个槛,原来当地政府可以说随迁子女不能在当地参加高考。现在不能轻易说“不能”了。但当地政府接受多少,多大范围地接受,还是一个问题。要让所有的随迁子女都平等地获得机会还需要有一个过程。
具体情况
1、农民工在城市从事的一般都是劳动强度大、工作时间长的工作,他们在工作之余根本就没有时间和精力照顾自己的孩子。
2、农民工的工资和福利水平无法与城市工人相比,差距很大。以他们的工资收入水平很难支撑一个家庭在城市的生活。
3、由于户籍的限制,农民工的子女在城市的学校上学基本上是不可能的,即使有学校接收,其父母也很难承受高额的费用。而城市中那些面向农民工子女的学校基本上都是民间兴办的,其教学质量不仅无法和城市学校相比,也无法和农村学校相比。
distributed
1、年龄及性别分布
报告显示,在全部农村留守儿童中,学龄前(0—5周岁)、小学学龄(6—11周岁)、初中学龄(12—14周岁)和大龄(15—17周岁)4个年龄组占总体的比例分别为27.05%、34.85%、20.84%和17.27%。其中义务教育阶段的农村留守儿童约3000多万。在全部农村留守儿童中,男孩占53.71%,女孩占46.29%,男女性别比为114:75。
2、地区分布
据介绍,中国农村留守儿童的分布十分集中,而且多数居住在中南各省。四川、安徽、河南、广东、湖南和江西6省的农村留守儿童在中国农村留守儿童总量中所占比例超过半数,达到52%。
留守儿童问题一、社会问题现状据2000年五普资料显示,中国农村留守儿童近2000万人。有专家推算和保守估计,近年14岁以下的留守儿童至少在4390万以上。在一些农村劳动力输出大省,留守儿童在当地儿童总数中所占比例高达18-22%。父母双方都外出流动,儿童不能与父母在一起生活的情况在全部留守儿童中超过了半数,比例高达56.17%。因人口流动引发的农村留守儿童问题已经成为不可忽视的社会问题: 监护不力据统计,80%以上的留守儿童是由祖父母隔代监护和亲友临时监护,年事已高、文化素质较低的祖辈监护人基本没有能力辅导和监督孩子学习。农村学校受办学条件、师资力量、教学理念的局限与制约,针对留守儿童的需求提供特殊有效的教育和关爱力不从心,学校与家庭之间缺乏沟通。家庭和学校监护不力,导致相当数量的留守儿童产生厌学、逃学、辍学现象。留守儿童学习成绩及初中教育的在学率都低于正常家庭儿童,中国人民大学人口与发展研究中心的研究显示,进入初中阶段以后,留守儿童在校率大幅度下降,14周岁留守儿童的在校率仅为88%。 缺乏抚慰据西部某劳务输出大省在一县域内的调查显示:70%的父母年均回家不足3次,有的甚至几年才回家1次;近30%的留守儿童与父母通话、通信频率月均不足1次。由于父母长期外出,留守儿童的情感需求得不到满足,遇到心理问题得不到正常疏导,极大地影响了其身心健康形成人格扭曲的隐患,导致一部分儿童行为习惯较差,并且极易产生心理失衡、道德失范、行为失控甚至犯罪的倾向。南方沿海某省一项调查显示,19.6%的留守儿童觉得自己不如人,11.4%觉得自己受歧视,9.5%有过被遗弃的感觉。北方某省的一项调查显示,在青少年犯罪中留守儿童所占比例已高达20%。 疏于照顾监护责任不落实,监护人缺乏防范意识,儿童防护能力弱,农村留守儿童容易受到意外伤害,甚至成为不法分子侵害的对象。公安部门统计数据显示,被拐卖儿童群体中,第一位是流动儿童,第二位是留守儿童。女孩受到性侵害又不能及时得到父母帮助,极易酿成严重后果。 二、留守儿童心理问题心理问题是农村留守儿童最值得关注的问题。长期的单亲监护或隔代监护,甚至是他人监护或无人监护,使留守儿童无法象其他孩子那样得到父母的关爱,家长也不能随时了解、把握孩子的心理、思想变化。这种亲情的缺失使孩子变得孤僻、抑郁,甚至有一种被遗弃的感觉,严重地影响到了孩子心理的健康发展。这些心理方面的问题,直接影响到孩子的行为,使他们不论是在家里,还是在学校、社会都经常出现一些与其他孩子不一样的行为,这些行为常常超越道德、法律底限。 全国农村留守儿童约5800万人,其中14周岁以下的农村留守儿童约4000万人。发布的《农村留守儿童家庭教育活动调查分析报告》显示,32.9%的家长每天会和孩子联系一次,39.8%的家长每周会同孩子联系一次,21.1%的家长每个月才和孩子联系一次,4.9%的家长每年才和孩子联系一次,1.3%的家长甚至和孩子没有联系。由于长期远离父母,逾四成以上留守儿童感到孤单,三成以上留守儿童出现心理卫生问题。主要表现如下:
性格柔弱内向
留守儿童年龄幼小就离开父母,父母关爱严重缺失,尽管有些是爷爷奶奶或亲朋监管,但毕竟与父母亲疏不同,一遇到麻烦就会感觉柔弱无助,久而久之变得不愿与人交流,性格内向。
自卑心理障碍
儿童大都具有攀比心理,具有强烈的自豪感,而父母不在身边,他们就像失去了坚强的依靠和保护,因此和有些父母在身边的孩子相比容易产生自卑的心理障碍,有的甚至自暴自弃,丧失信心,学习不求上进。
孤独无靠心理
父母外出使孩子在家里感到空落感到孤独,近而产生心里骚动和抑郁等问题。
产生怨恨父母的心理
少数孩子不理解父母,认为家里穷,父母没有能耐,才外出打工,由此产生怨恨心理,有的孩子在父母回家后说疏远父母,和父母产生情感隔膜,甚至怨恨父母无情。
为此我们根据以上对留守儿童心理健康问题原因及其分析和对留守儿童心理状况的了解,为了更好地让那些留守儿童健康快乐成长,我们提出了建立留守学生心理健康教育的模式:
1、建立“留守儿童“成长档案,以学校为单位,对全部'留守儿童'的生活思想、学习和家庭教育情况进行调查摸底,逐一登记造册,建立反映其进步与不足的成长记录档案,并实行动态跟踪及进归档、分类管理、信息共通的工作程序,根据档案记录情况有效的做好工作。
2、建立“留守儿童”家长联系热线,通过书信、电话、家访召开家长会等形式,与“留守儿童”的家长主动沟通,经常联系,让家长及时了解掌握孩子的情况。
3、培训“留守儿增设一些课程内容和生活能力训练内容,提高孩子的自我保护意识和法律意识,增强生活自理能力,养成良好生活习惯。
三、学习问题由于父母双方或一方不在身边,对留守儿童学习方面的帮助和监督大大减少,甚至完全减除了,使孩子在学习方面处于一种无人过问的状况。学好了,没人夸;学坏了,无人骂。渐渐使孩子对学习产生一种无所谓的态度。孩子的精力不放在学习上,自然就要在其它方面加以消耗,于是其行为开始出现偏差,各种超越道德、规则的行为开始在孩子身上出现。加上监护人本身对孩子亲情缺失状况的同情,于是在孩子行为稍有出格的时候也不会加以管束,使孩子在偏离健康发展轨道的方向上越走越远。缺乏管教引发行为失范甚至越轨,在留守儿童身上体现极为普遍。 四、生活问题留守儿童的生活问题,特别是父母双方都外出打工的那部分儿童,其生活状况是不容乐观的。留守儿童的父母之所以抛下自己的孩子外出打工,是因为家庭务农的收入无法让自己的家庭过上稳定的生活,否则如果有一点办法,他们都会想法设法与孩子呆在一起的,所以生活困难是留守儿童家庭的普遍特征。虽然他们出去打工可以挣到一些钱,但其付出与收入相比依然是极不平衡的,有时因为制度等方面的缺陷,自己挣到的钱还不能及时拿到手,所以他们在家庭生活方面是及其节俭的。父母离开后,留守儿童及其监护人在节俭方面表现的更为突出,表现在饮食方面,吃好是不敢奢求的,能吃饱就行了。儿童时期正是长身体的时期,合理的饮食结构和营养搭配对孩子的成长来说是十分重要的。处在这一年龄段的城市儿童,是备受父母及亲友呵护的,而农村留守儿童只能在极度节俭的状态下过着维持温饱的生活。这些儿童在生病的时候,也往往没有能力和条件去医院救治,只能采取一些简单的、传统的方法治疗,或者干脆硬“扛”。 另外,众所周知,目前中国的农业被称为“老弱病残”农业。优秀的劳动力大部分都离开乡村去城市打工了,老弱病残成了农业的主要劳动力。留守儿童在其稍有一点力气的时候,也不得不加入到劳动者的队伍中去,即使他们不去干那些高强度的体力活,也要承担各种家务劳动。过早的分担家庭负担对他们的健康成长的影响也极大。 五、社会关爱不足问题家庭温暖的缺失使留守儿童心理方面产生了很大的变异,他们多在性格方面表现出不同程度的抑郁和孤僻,很难融入正常的同龄人群体。加之,目前农村的社会活动和人际关系基本上是以家庭和亲缘关系为纽带展开的,对于自己家庭及亲缘关系之外的其他人的困难处境,他们虽有同情的态度,却也无可奈何。于是留守儿童们在既得不到家庭温暖,有得不到社会关爱的情况下,只能靠自己对生活及社会的理解生活并发展自己,于是道德滑坡、学习偏差、心理缺失等现象在他们身上不可避免地出现可。从上面的简单说明我们可以看到,出现在农村留守儿童身上的问题很多,也很严重,已经不是个别人的问题了,而是关系到一个人数达2300多万的群体的问题了,而且这个群体还在不断壮大。少年智则国智,少年富则国富,少年强则国强,少年独立则国独立,少年自由则国自由,少年进步则国进步”而面对留守儿童这一社会现象,无疑对中国日后的发展极为不利的。留守儿童无论是学业、心理、健康、前途都是值得我们关注的。他们都是农村的儿童,是未来农村建设的主力,如果不及时采取有效措施解决他们身上出现的问题,使他们在平等、和谐的环境中健康成长,未来的新农村建设将受到极大的影响。 要想找到解决的办法,必须先找出问题产生的原因。留守儿童现象的出现从大的方面讲就是因为农村经济发展滞后产生的。农村经济发展是一个非常复杂的问题,不是短时间内能够解决的,所以我们在解决留守儿童问题时要尽量寻找其产生的更直接的原因,只有这样才能尽快找到解决问题的有效方法,也只有这样才能不至于耽误一代人的成长。 留守儿童教育
基本状况
目前主要有两种类型:一是隔代监护,即由爷爷、奶奶或外公、外婆,对“留守儿童”监护的方式比较多。对于这种监护的方式,外出的父母比较放心。但这种监护方式在儿童成长过程中,却有着难以克服的问题。一是由于血缘、亲缘关系,监护者多采用溺爱的管教方式。较多地给予物质、生活上的满足和过多的宽容放任,而较少精神、道德上的管束和引导。二是祖孙辈年龄差距大,观念不一样,对待许多事物的看法往往存在很大的差异,“代沟”明显,难以相互沟通。一般来说,祖辈们往往以他们自己成长的经历来教育要求孙子辈,思想观念保守,教育方法简单。而现在的孩子见识广,喜欢赶新潮,寻求刺激和创新,做事不拘一格等,老人的观念和教育方法很难为孙辈接受。另外,老人年岁大,精力不济,健康状况欠佳,再加上有的老人监护的有几个“留守儿童”,真是力不从心。以上情况说明祖辈难以承担监护教育之责。二是上代监护,即由父母的同辈人,如叔、伯、姑、姨、舅等亲戚或他人抚养的监护方式。由于监护对象并非己子,监护人在教养过程中难免有所顾虑,不敢严格管教。这样,上代监护也大多属于物质型和放任型的管教方式,容易养成儿童任性的心理行为。而对于较为敏感的儿童来说,又容易产生寄人篱下的感觉,从而形成怕事、孤僻、内向的性格。
教育存在的问题
1、学习状况一般
由于这些孩子在留守期间是和年迈的祖父母、外祖父母或其他亲友生活在一起的,监护人文化水平低,没有能力辅导孩子的学习,重养轻教,致使孩子的学习得不到有效的督促和引导,大多数留守儿童在学习上自觉性差,纪律不强,没有良好的学习习惯,被动地学习,学习成绩较差。
2、心理封闭和情感世界问题
“留守儿童”由于在情感上缺少健全的关爱和沟通,容易产生心理障碍。长期与父母分离,导致留守儿童在日常生活中享受不到父母的关怀,遇到困难不能从父母那里找到感情的支持,在学习、生活过程中出现一些差错得不到及时的引导、纠正,久而久之,便形成一些明显的心理行为问题。如感情脆弱,自暴自弃,焦虑自闭,缺乏自信,悲观消极。
3、道德行为差
由于缺乏有效监管和教育,留守儿童往往对事物分不清好坏和是非,不能正确地看待问题,容易受社会上反面现象的影响,容易养成一些不良行为。例如:经常说谎,爱说脏话,不服管教,悄悄拿同学的东西。
4、打工父母的一些观念存在负面影响
认为自己下苦力挣的钱比文化较高的人挣钱还多的“打工”父母,在他们心目中滋长着新的“读书无用论”思想,于是对子女没有明确的要求,顺其自然,从而“能读书就读,读不好去打工也能赚钱”的观念在儿童思想中普遍存在。而一些没有挣得什么钱的打工父母,认为是命运不好,整天怨天尤人,对子女的一切不闻不问,不负责任。使“留守儿童”幼小的心灵上背上了父母沉重的情绪包袱,承担着很大精神压力,严重影响他们的正常学习和健康成长。
5、留守儿童存在着严重的“亲情饥渴”
亲情的抚慰与关怀对孩子的成长起着至关重要的作用。留守儿童大部分正处于身心迅速发展的时期,对自身变化与人际交往等方面有着自己的理解与认识,同时也面临许多方面的问题和烦恼,需要有渠道倾诉,有亲人安慰。但由于留守儿童的父母常年在外务工,有的半年,一年甚至多年都难以给孩子打一个电话,写一封信,见一次面,以此维系亲情很难沟通思想,倾听烦恼,给孩子予以足够的关怀。有的父母与孩子多年不曾见面,致使孩子遗忘了父母的面貌,更谈不上有何亲情。
6.监护人缺乏保护意识导致的意外伤害比例较大
由于大部分留守儿童属于未成年人,缺乏自我保护的意识和能力,对突发事件也缺乏应变和自救能力,没有父母的监护,容易受到不法分子的侵害和利用。加上不少留守儿童上学路途较远,经常起早摸黑赶路,人身安全令人担忧。
教育的基本策略
1、要求家长努力承担起教子之责
目前多数农民文化程度不高,他们误以为教育孩子是学校的事,家长只要给钱给物当好“后勤部长”就可以了,至于读书是学校和老师及儿童自己的事情,家长是没有什么责任的,他们一般认为儿童学习成绩的好坏是由儿童个人的素质决定的。家长应该改变这些不正确的思想,树立“子不教,父之过”的教育责任观,明确教育子女是自己的应尽之责,家长自身文化水平的高低并不影响对子女的教育。即使在外地务工,也要把教育孩子的那份责任承担起来,与学校、社会形成合力,把教育孩子的工作做好。应主动与子女的任课老师、村主任联系,加强沟通。向老师说明自己的情况,了解子女的发展变化,共同商讨教育孩子的策略和方法,这样才不致于使“留守儿童”的家庭教育方面出现盲区。家长还应加强与“监护人”联系及亲子间的沟通。及时掌握孩子的学业、品行及身体健康状况,并通过各种方式对孩子的学习和生活进行指导,要求“监护人”一定要保证孩子充分的学习时间,一定要嘱咐其对孩子的严格要求,加强生活和学业的监护。
另一方面,应采取多种方式,注意与孩子的沟通交流。沟通的时间间隔越短越好,保证熟悉孩子的生活、教育情况以及孩子的心理变化;沟通内容力求全面、细致,沟通中父母要明示他们对孩子的爱与厚望,希望孩子能理解他们的家境与现状,通过沟通以了解孩子的生活、学习、情感变化;沟通方式可以多样化,除电话外,可采用书信等进行交流。每一个孩子都是一块无暇的“翡翠”,只要心里装有父母和亲人的爱,他们就有积极向上的原动力,就会学得更棒,做得更好。
2、加强管理,施以爱心
我们把“留守儿童”的教育已经作为专项工作,常抓不懈。各村都建立起“留守儿童”个人档案。档案资料的内容有,“留守儿童”姓名、年龄、道德品质、行为习惯、兴趣爱好、智力水平、性格特征、学习动机和态度、学习能力和方法,与临时监护人的融洽程度,与打工父母的沟通情况等;临时监护人的基本情况,包括姓名、年龄、文化程度、性格特征,重点是监护人如何对孩子进行管教等;“留守儿童”父母的基本情况,包括姓名、年龄、文化程度、工作单位及工种、经济收入情况、对子女的希望要求、与子女联系沟通情况等。
针对“留守儿童”的特点和需要,我让亲子间保持电话联系,根据孩子的校内外表现,让孩子与父母取得联系,每月定期通电话,让家长对孩子进行“电话教育”。爱是教育的基石,教育应把爱放在中心位置。我与村上的“留守儿童”交朋友,时刻关心、爱护、照顾他们。在安全上,时刻提醒;在生活上,尽可能提供帮助;在心理上,细心观察,多方沟通;在学习上,耐心辅导。
总之,一个孩子的身心、人格、思想的健康发展离不了家长的教育。“留守儿童”的教育问题成了当前社会的热门话题,就让我们携起手来,从现在起,时时、处处、事事关注留守儿童吧!
留守儿童心理分析
河南农村“留守儿童”心理问题简析
随着我国工业化、城市化进程的加快和市场逐渐成为劳动力资源的配置机制,出现了大规模的人口流动。据有关部门估算,我国目前的年流动人口已逾1.2亿,且呈继续增长的趋势。常年见不到父母留在农村的“留守儿童”则远远超出这个数字。据河南省公布的一项调查,河南省现有14岁以下的“留守儿童”300余万。以笔者所在的学校而言,现有义务教育阶段和学前儿童不足280名,“留守儿童”213人。可见,在我国广大农村,留守儿童占有份额绝对不小的比例,且在不断增长。由于“留守儿童”特殊的生活和教育环境,由此引发的生活、教育、情感、心理等一系列问题日益凸显。
农村外出务工人员的增多,农村“留守儿童”问题已成为当前基础教育的一个重要问题。“留守儿童”缺少父母的爱,在对他们的管教上很容易出现“三多”和“三缺”问题:隔代监护多溺爱、寄养监护多偏爱、无人监护多失爱;生活上缺人照应、行为上缺人管教、学习上缺人辅导。由于孩子们本身贪玩,缺乏自律意识,相当多的孩子在人格形成过程中出现了缺馅,尤其心理问题十分突出。
一、当前农村“留守儿童”中存在的主要心理问题
“留守儿童”在心理上的问题更多的暴露出性格上的缺陷,如自制力差、自我中心、金钱主义、自私、自卑、孤僻、任性、暴躁、逆反等。有心理问题的“留守儿童”,在日常生活和学习过程中就会表现出以下一些症状:
1、“留守儿童”容易违纪,叛逆心理苗头出现。在农村学校违纪学生中,“留守学生”占绝大多数,低年级及学前儿童一般表现为逃学、迟到;不完成作业;小偷小摸;不诚实,经常说谎;高年级“留守儿童”开始出现叛逆心理,攻击意识很强,与老师顶撞,不服从管教,更有甚者还盲目冲动、打架斗殴。
2、“留守儿童”普遍厌学,自卑心理十分严重。大多数“留守儿童”的行为习惯较差、对学习没有兴趣、不愿参加活动、自卑心理严重、生活无聊而空虚。小学低年级“留守儿童”中,胆小怕事、课堂不敢回答问题的占75℅以上;高年级“留守儿童”中,由于对学习失去信心,开始沉迷于网络游戏之中。
3、“留守儿童”缺乏沟通,性格内向孤僻。由于缺乏父母亲情的滋润,许多留守孩子长期处于自我封闭的状态,“代管监护人”的缺位沟通使他们长期看电视,并模仿局中人,自言自语或与小狗小猫说话。长期的自我封闭,导致一些“留守儿童”出现了人际交往敏感,口头交际能力减弱;长期的自我封闭,导致部分留守儿童的性格内向孤僻冷谈。
二、农村小学“留守儿童”心理问题产生的原因
(一)、家庭教育的缺位,亲情关爱的缺失,是导致孩子产生心理问题的直接原因。
隔代监管和隔代教育使“留守学生”不同程度地产生心理问题,对他们的身心发展有很大的负面影响。
很多家长外出务工后,就把儿童托付给年迈的父母(爷爷奶奶或者外公外婆)照管,“留守儿童”长期与父母分离,负责照管孩子的农村老人不仅年迈而且绝大多数文化素质较低,难以从体力和智力上担负监管重任,在长期情感缺失和心理失衡的影响下,“留守儿童”因“情感饥饿”而产生畸形心态,主要表现为:任性、自私、冷漠,缺乏同情心;逆反心理重;性格孤僻,自我为中心,合作意识差;没有礼貌,没有上进心,集体荣誉感不强,道德品行较差;学习成绩低下,学习缺乏自觉性、积极性和刻苦精神;由于家庭没有称职监护人,学校、家庭又无法沟通,学生厌学情绪日趋严重,学生就更加难管了。
(二)、学校的不当评价、教师的不当教育,是导致“留守儿童”产生心理问题的重要原因。
1、学校的“分数”评价导致“留守儿童”心理问题的产生。
长期以来的应试教育,学校以分数高低来评价教师和学生的教育评价机制,把学生划分为好学生和坏学生,使得我们的教师把更多的精力倾注到那些学习成绩好,听话的学生,而对于那些学习基础差,又经常违纪的学生,更是不闻不问,不理不管,而这一部分学生中,大多数是“留守孩子”。虽然新课改在不断推进,学校的评价也发生了很大的变化,但是,从各学校、基层教育部门制订的考核细则中不难发现,无论从多少个指标中来考核教师,最终拉开教师之间分数的还是班级学生们的“考分”!
2、教师的不当教育导致留守儿童心理问题的产生。
①教师不当学生观,是“留守儿童”产生心理问题的原因之一。在传统的教育中,学生的成绩好坏或听不听话,是直接影响教师学生观的主导因素。教师对成绩好的学生投入更多的关注,对成绩差的学生常常是一点机会都不给,或者是给予很少的机会。而学习成绩差的学生,大多数是“留守儿童”,他们无论如何都不会引起教师的重视和信任,于是就会抑郁悲观,往往以“不好”、“更不听话”的方式与教师对抗。而他们的逆反又会激起教师对这部分学生的厌弃,这样的恶性循环导致师生关系恶化,有的教师甚至采取挖苦讽刺的方式,给这部分“留守儿童”带来更大的心理压力。
②教师落后教学观,是导致“留守儿童”产生心理问题的一个重要原因。主要表现为以下几种情况:第一、学生在课堂上没有自主权。认为学生是白板,教师可任意涂抹。教师把学生看成课堂教学的附属品,学生必须无条件地服从教师,使学生产生自卑感、恐惧感。第二、信奉“严师出高徒”的古训,认为“玉不琢不成器”。学生在课堂上不能有半点违背教师的意思,惩罚成为家常便饭,学生每时每刻如履薄冰,如临大敌,很容易产生心理疲劳。第三、由于教师产生职业倦怠,对学生严重地不负责任,对学生的学习漠不关心。儿童在家得不到关爱,在校得不到温暖,很容易出现心理问题。
(三)、社会的不良环境、成人的不良影响,是“留守儿童”产生心理问题的重大诱因。
社会是一个大熔炉,对于人的成长起着不可忽视的作用。目前农村“留守儿童”由于社会教育的原因,存在的问题也十分严重,具体表现在:
1、社会上的不良场所对“留守儿童”的成长带来不利影响
目前农村小集镇上的一些公开的和隐蔽网吧,违[17]反国家有关规定,为了赚钱,而大量招徕在校学生,甚至引诱学生。小学儿童自控力本身就不强,而“留守儿童”又缺乏父母的监管,网吧对他们的不利影响就更大,经常偷钱、编造谎话逃学上网。
2、成年人的不良行为对“留守儿童”的成长也带来了不良影响
农闲时节,“闲人”太多,致使赌博风盛行。无事干的人成天就在牌桌上赌博,许多“留守儿童”的代管监护人也参与其中,整天在牌桌上生活,很少过问孩子的情况。这种“潜移默化”对孩子带来很大的不良影响。
(四)、和不思进取,相互攀比。有的留守儿童父母交代抚养者,孩子想要什么都尽量地满足,自然给孩子的攀比心理提供了温床。
(1)、抚养者的溺爱,使得孩子任性而以自我为中心,为孩子的攀比提供了推动力。过分的溺爱与迁就、娇生惯养,会让孩子滋生攀比心理。
(2)、孩子模仿能力强,还不能辨别是非曲直、真善美丑,什么都跟着学,因此,在有攀比风气的环境中容易产生攀比心理。
(3)、家长的自卑和攀比心态,是导致孩子攀比心理的一个重要原因。有些家长经济不太宽裕,或下岗了,怕自己的孩子受人欺侮,让人瞧不起,当孩子说某同伴有什么东西时,父母便迫不及待地为自己的孩子买一份,哪怕自己再苦再累也在所不惜,这也是导致孩子产生攀比心理的一个重要原因。
以上分析尽管不尽全面,但应引起社会、家庭、学校的重视,儿童本身是一个弱势群体,他们对自己身边的环境只有无条件适应,希望我们在提高社会经济环境的同时注意创造和谐社会生活环境!
留守儿童立法情况
Henan Province
《河南省未成年人保护条例(修订草案)》2010年5月25日提请省人大常委会审议,修订的内容主要围绕留守儿童、校园安全、网瘾等近年来社会上出现的新问题。
留守儿童远离父母,容易在心理和情感方面出现问题,《条例(修订草案)》为此作出规定:父母或者其他监护人因外出务工不能履行监护职责的,应当委托有监护能力的其他成年人代为监护,还要与未成年子女和受委托监护人保持经常联系,关心未成年子女生活、学习和身心健康情况。
《条例(修订草案)》还特别关注了校园安全问题,详细规定了学校、幼儿园、托儿所、公安机关、学校的职责,并在制度、人员、巡逻、检查、设施等方面作了详细规定,努力为未成年人织成一张“温柔”的安全防护网。
Chongqing
中新社重庆2010年5月11日电重庆欲为未成年人立法,保护其健康成长,其中包括重点关注农村留守儿童。11日,《重庆市未成年人保护条例(草案)》(简称《条例》)提交了重庆市三届人大常委会第十七次会议审议。
重庆市人大内务司法委员会主任委员杨颖嘉透露,在中国13亿人口中18周岁以下的未成年人约有4亿,而重庆3200万人口中未成年人有800万,需要国家、社会、学校和家庭给予特别关心和爱护,以及法律给予的特殊保护。1998年,重庆市人大常委会制定《重庆市实施<中华人民共和国未成年人保护法>办法》。但随着重庆经济社会发展,未成年人沉迷网络、留守儿童监护缺位、网吧接纳未成年人、青少年违法犯罪呈增长趋势等系列新问题引起社会高度关注。
2010年初,重庆市人大内务司法委员会与共青团重庆市委组建《条例》起草小组,以多种形式开展论证。《条例》共有8章,分别在家庭、学校、社会、司法等多方面对保护未成年人作出具体规定。
杨颖嘉称,重庆是农村劳务输出的重点地区,该市农村外出务工人员近700万有200多万未成年子女,占农村地区未成年人总数的半数以上。这些留守儿童由于父母长期不在身边、居住分散、家庭经济困难等原因,缺乏亲情关怀和学习辅导以及约束管教和安全保护,在生活、学习、心理和人身安全方面均存在一些亟待解决的问题。此次《条例》草案分别从政府职责、家长义务、社会关怀不同角度对加强留守儿童监护作出具体规定。
《条例》草案规定,父母或其他监护人因外出务工或其他原因不能履行监护职责时,应委托有监护能力的其他成年人代为监护,并将委托监护情况告知未成年人子女所在学校和户籍所在地或居住地村民委员会、居民委员会;外出务工人员较集中地区每个乡镇至少建一所寄宿制学校,在乡镇、村社推行外出务工人员子女托管服务机构建设,并对家庭经济困难的未成年学生给予寄宿费用减免或资助。
此外,《条例》草案还在加强对校园周边不适宜未成年人进入的经营场所整治、相关文体活动场所对未成年人开放、加强对网吧接纳未成年人违法行为监管等社会普遍关注的热点问题作出规定和规范。
Anhui Province
新华网合肥2009年10月30日专电记者从安徽省教育厅获悉,安徽省日前出台法规,明确规定应保障留守儿童各项权益,首次提出留守儿童的保护问题。
安徽是全国的劳务输出大省,省内留守儿童作为一个特殊的未成年人群体备受社会各界广泛关注。新修订的《安徽省未成年人保护条例》新增留守儿童权益保障条例,用法律保护留守儿童。
条例规定,父母或者其他监护人因外出务工或者其他原因不能对未成年人履行监护职责的,应当委托有监护能力的人员代为监护,并将委托监护情况告知未成年人所在学校、村(居)民委员会。父母应当与学校、未成年子女和受委托监护人保持经常联系,关心未成年子女的身心健康和生活、学习情况,提供必要的生活保障。
条例还规定,各级人民政府应当将留守未成年人寄宿工作纳入寄宿制学校建设的总体规划,指导和督促教育行政部门和学校改善寄宿条件,并对家庭经济困难的学生给予寄宿费用减免或者资助;教育行政部门、学校应当开展对留守未成年人的生活关爱、学习辅导等活动,为留守未成年人提供良好的学习、生活条件;鼓励和支持企业事业单位、社会团体和个人等社会力量捐资兴建留守未成年人寄宿制学校、托管中心或者服务中心。
Zhejiang Province
新华网杭州2009年12月28日电浙江省人大内务司法委员会表示,应该在地方性法规中增加专门条款,加强对农村留守的、离异家庭的未成年人等群体的保护。
12月28日,浙江省政府提请省十一届人大常委会第15次会议审议《浙江省未成年人保护条例(草案)》。
浙江省人大内务司法委员会在向省人大常委会作审议报告时表示,草案虽然规定了一系列公共服务的措施,但针对性还不够明显,建议在适当地方增加专门条款,加强对农村留守的未成年人等群体的保护。
据了解,目前浙江省11个设区的市和86个县已经成立未成年人保护委员会。
浙江省十一届人大常委会第15次会议28日还听取了省政府提请审议的《浙江省未成年人保护条例(草案)》,规定学校、幼儿园、托儿所、照管和保护未成年人的各类服务机构及其教职员工对未成年人应当平等对待;对品行有缺点、学习有困难的学生,要耐心教育、帮助,不得忽视、歧视。
立法提案
全国政协十届四次会议上,敬一丹等24名政协委员提交了《关于为农村留守儿童建立成长保障制度的提案》。提案称,在一些劳务输出大省,留守儿童在当地儿童总数中所占比例高达18-22%,农村留守儿童问题已成为不可忽视的社会问题。
委员们建议,全国人大在修订《未成年人保护法》时,从法律上保障农村留守儿童的权益。公安、教育、卫生、民政、城建等部门,要加快取消与户籍相联系的教育、医疗、住房等各种城乡隔离制度。建议教育部门针对农村留守儿童问题进一步研究和出台相应的政策和规定,强化农村学校对留守儿童的责任和管理,构建学校监护网。
各级政府加大教育投资,在劳动力人口输出集中的地区推进农村寄宿制学校建设,让留守儿童在集体关爱的环境中健康成长,是对家庭教育缺失的有效补偿。
教育部门和妇联、关工委等社会团体要加强家庭教育指导,使留守儿童能够感受到社会的温暖与关爱,形成整个社会关注留守儿童健康成长的良好氛围。
关爱留守儿童
大家都知道家庭是一个人成长的起点,是孩子接受教育的第一所学校。父母则是孩子的第一任老师,家庭教育是人类一切教育的基础,直接影响着孩子的成长。而留守儿童由于第一监护人出现缺位,而孩子对家长依赖性都较强和较易接受家长的教育,可亲情和家庭教育的缺失使我们的孩子养成了不少的不良习惯,甚至出现了严重的违纪违法事件。例如有个孩子,作业不按时完成,成绩很差,甚至在上学途中突然走失,和其他同学相邀一起打牌,家人以为在校读书,学校以为生病在家,影响非常恶劣。找到他爷爷和奶奶协调孩子的教育问题,他们说:“教育孩子我们也不懂,我们给他吃饱穿暖就尽到责任了,全靠老师帮忙教育。”对此我们有何话可说呢。
虽然在生活上对孩子给予了足够的关心,但是我们在孩子的学习,心理、生理、行为、习惯养成等方面,又给予了多少关心和关注呢?比如孩子在校干什么? How is it performing?及时回家吗? ……这些我们关心了吗?虽然孩子父母的亲情缺位了,但关爱不能缺位,为了让留守儿童“离开不离爱”,为了提高大家的教育方法与管理的有效性,应从以下几方面入手:
一、解决生活的后顾之忧。
留守儿童在家,生活成了孩子的主要顾虑的问题。那么,我们就要像新娘一样对待孩子,解决孩子的生活问题。大家都知道亲娘对子女的爱,是不讲代价,不计得失,不图回报,含亲茹苦,只求孩子成材,将来过得比自己更好,我们这样做不是为了贪图将来他们对我们的报答,因为这些无私的付出会密切我们和孩子之间的关系。春风化雨润物无声,这种慈母般的爱,将是推动孩子不断前进的强大动力。
二、关爱孩子的精神成长。
把孩子喜怒哀乐放在心上,注重孩子的生理心理活动、道德情操、审美情趣的教育。与孩子沟通交流情感,弥补留守孩子亲情的缺失。心理健康问题已是留守儿童最容易出现的问题,留守儿童的心理健康问题表现为隐性,是不容易发觉的问题,主要表现如下:
1、性格孤僻内向。留守儿童年龄幼小,离开父母尽管有的是爷爷奶奶和其他亲戚监管,但是毕竟与父母是亲疏不同的,遇到一些麻烦事情会显得柔弱无助,久而久之变得不愿与人交流,性格孤僻内向,不开朗。
2、有自卑心理情绪。儿童大都具有攀比心理,留守儿童由于自己父母不在身边,自己没有依靠和坚强的保护,因此,与父母全在身边的儿童相比,容易产生自卑的心理障碍,有的甚至自暴自弃,丧失信心,学习上降低要求,上进心不强。
3、产生反抗或逆反心理。留守儿童总感到别人在欺负他,一点小事就计较当真,与人交流时充满警惕甚至敌意。对老师、监护人、亲友的管教和批评,产生较强的逆反心理,容易激进冲动,干出一些不可理喻的事情。如:与家人顶撞,不听亲人劝告;不听老师的教导,与教师对着干。
4、产生怨恨父母心理。有少数孩子认为家里穷,父母无能耐,才会出去打工挣钱。对父母外出打工,把自己留在家里不理解,由此而产生怨恨情绪。有的孩子在父母回家后疏远父母,产生情感隔膜,甚至埋怨父母的无情。
大多数孩子在父母外出后都表现出一些异常心理问题,其中年齡越小的孩子表现比较突出,女孩比男孩突出,所以我们对待这些问题要认真谨慎。
作为老师既要做思想道路的引路人,又要做孩子学习进步的引导者,生活的保护者。因此做到“三多”、“二知”、“一沟通”。“三多”,即多与留守儿童谈心,弥补留守儿童的亲情缺失;多鼓励支持孩子参加学校的各项活动;多进行家访,了解孩子在家活动和学习情况;“二知”即知道留守儿童的个人基本情况和家庭情况;“一沟通”即定期与留守儿童父母电话交流沟通,并采取针对措施,提供必要的帮助。用关爱、亲情为留守儿童营造温馨的家园氛围。
三、正确的教育孩子。
留守孩子身上所具有的狭隘、偏执性格缺陷,使老师的工作就更是复杂了,那么针对孩子的不同情况,我们应采取不同的教育方法,对症下药,因材施教,严禁简单粗暴的教育方法,严禁体罚或变相体罚孩子,正确引导孩子健康成长,比如:
1、我们怀疑孩子说谎时,怎么办?千万不要当面表现出对孩子的不信任,要通过多方调查,证实孩子确实在说谎,再进行交流沟通指导。
2、当孩子与其他孩子发生纠纷,怎么办?要教育孩子主动承担责任,做一个诚实守信的人,千万不要支持孩子说谎,推缷责任。
3、当孩子与我们对着干,怎么办?我们要充分冷静,等双方都冷静后,我们再像朋友一样与孩子亲切交谈沟通,指出孩子的不足,错误和缺点,并说:“孩子,跌倒了再爬起来,知错能改,就是好样的。”
4、当孩子缺乏自信的时候,怎么办?我们要热情鼓励并告诉他(她):“孩子,把头抬起来,我相信你能行!”
5、当孩子受到委屈的时候,我们可以帮他们擦去眼泪,并安慰他们说:“孩子,没有关系,任何人都会受到委屈的,我相信你最坚强,以后别人会理解你的。”
6、当孩子取得进步的时候,我们要及时表扬可以说:“孩子,你真棒!”“你真行!”的话语,并为他们鼓掌,如有可能适当给予物质奖励。
总之,关爱留守儿童,教育好下一代,需要社会、学校、家庭等多方面的配合与支持,希望我们每一个人都去关心、爱护、教育、帮助这一弱势群体。
留守儿童问题的解决建议
留守儿童问题是伴随工业化、城镇化进程和劳动力转移产生,并将长时期存在的社会问题,解决好这个问题,关系到未来人口素质和劳动力的培育,关系到农村经济和社会的协调发展,也关系到社会稳定和可持续发展。坚持以人为本,认真贯彻中央《关于推进社会主义新农村建设的若干意见》和《关于加强未成年人思想道德建设》的精神,就必须从法律、制度层面整体地加以考虑和解决。
(一)各地政府和教育部门应根据本地实际情况,合理调整学校布局,加大寄宿制中心学校建设,让留守儿童尽量住在学校。
(二)建立多种形式的留守儿童的保护网络。比如建立以父母,亲属为主体的家庭监护网络,以基层组织为主体的管理网络,以学校老师为主体的学校帮护网络等,对留守儿童给予对口的帮助。
(三)调整人口管理制度,逐步取消户籍差别,并将解决留守儿童问题与城市民工子女入学问题有机地结合起来,实行农民工“市民待遇”,从根本上解决留守儿童问题。
(四)各级政府特别是教育部门应该给予一定的扶持和帮助,政府应合理分担留守儿童的教育成本,取消所谓的借读费和择校费。
Expert answers
问:留守儿童有哪些不好?
因为家里条件不好,孩子却有两个了,一个月的,小的现在肚子里面七个多月了,非常烦恼,想产后六个月我就出去打工了。只能把两个孩子给婆婆带,这样会不会非常不好的呀?留守儿童真的不好的,是不是?
答:您好,留守儿童由于生活在一个特殊的成长环境里,父母长年在外打工,与子女接触少、沟通少,根本没有体会到孩子的内心世界,忽视了对孩子进行心理教育和疏导,致使农村留守儿童心理问题日益凸显,有的甚至严重影响了孩子的健康成长。其实留守儿童蛮多的,首先从饮食状况吧,老人总是不太讲卫生,喜欢喂嚼食,也不会讲究给宝宝吃鱼肝油和乳钙,然后就是对宝宝心里成长有影响,父母不在孩子身边,宝宝觉得缺乏安全感,会变得胆子小,容易性格内向,再就是教育,老人文化程度知识都不高,不能给宝宝一些良好的教育。
问:如何从家庭开始消灭"留守儿童"现象?
答:家长要陪伴在孩子身边,多关注,多投入感情,否则,即便家长在孩子身边,如果不关注,不理会孩子,孩子也和留守儿童一样呀。
问:出去工作,只能让我的两个宝宝当留守儿童怎么办?
产后妈妈会很难找工作吗?我非常担心,我怕找不到工作怎么办?宝爸爸没法养活四个人,而且我们现在没钱花。但只能让宝宝当留守儿童,怎么办?
答:你好,根据你的叙述,产后妈妈只要身体情况良好,还是可以找到一份工作的,你可以去妇联寻求帮助来找一份好的工作,国家教育政策正在向农民工倾斜,你可以带着孩子去城里就近上学,农民工孩子应该受到重视,好好工作,孩子好好学习,祝你幸福
问:3岁的儿童偏食怎么办?会导致的营养不良么?
我的女儿3岁了,人也不算瘦,但是最近有点偏食,而且好像越来越严重。有解决偏食的好法子吗?
答:很多时候孩子不喜欢某种食物时,抚养者并不是劝说或讲道理,而是一味地迁就;当孩子喜欢吃某一种食品时,父母就会让孩子多吃。这些人认为,随着年龄的增长,孩子会改掉这种挑食的毛病,但事实并非如此。孩子的过分挑食会使某些营养的摄入不足或过量,导致孩子容易生病或是过度肥胖,严重影响他们的生长和发育。
孩子挑食习惯形成的原因主要有:
一是父母纵容促成孩子挑食。婴儿时期的孩子只有单味觉,没有分辨复合味道的能力,此时母亲尽量采取母乳喂养或者给孩子喝的牛奶中不加糖、辅食果汁而选择原汁原味,这样孩子的味觉记忆中没有口味过重的东西,长大后就不容易挑食。孩子在成长过程中出现挑食的现象,这与抚养者的态度很有关系。比如孩子这一餐某种食品多吃一点,那一餐另一种食品多吃一点,此时,若家长过于纵容就会促成孩子吃饭挑食的坏习惯。吃自己喜爱和可口的食物是人的天性,抚养者一味地满足孩子这种“天性”,就可能使孩子得不到平衡的膳食,从而导致孩子发生食物富足型的营养不良。此外,家长要想丰富孩子们的口味,必须首先端正自己的饮食态度,需让孩子看到父母在食用多种健康食物。
二是抚养者的强制进食导致孩子的逆反心理。爷爷奶奶追着孩子喂食的情形经常都会见到,为了孩子能得到合理均衡的饮食,抚养者往往使尽浑身解数,可孩子依然我行我素,使得又累又急的抚养者火冒三丈,两个巴掌上去,眼泪汪汪的孩子把饭吃下去了。很多情况下抚养者喂孩子吃饭的架势就像一场战争。其实用强制或粗暴的手段逼孩子吃东西会使他产生逆反心理。因为不愉快的情绪不仅会降低食欲、影响消化'而且会让孩子产生对立情绪或恐惧心理,反而会增加儿童挑食的可能性。
三是曾经有过不愉快的经历。如果以前吃某种食物后肚子痛或生病,或者在不愉快的情境下被迫吃了某种食物,这都会令孩子对这种食物产生抗拒的心理。
四是想借此控制抚养者。有些孩子知道抚养者很在乎自己是否进食,很关注自己吃了多少,因此常利用挑食或偏食来要挟、控制抚养者,以达到某种目的。例如:你要买什么给我,我才肯吃。
抚养者的责任是将合适的饭菜在合适的时间提供给孩子,许多儿童在成长期中都会有一些正常的“挑食”行为,这与他们独有的个性和个人喜好密切相关,而这类问题随着年龄的增长是能够纠正的。如果孩子挑食已经影响到正常的生长发育,就要引起注意了。
纠正孩子的挑食习惯可以从以下几个方面着手:
(1)、要了解孩子偏食的原因。例如,有的孩子只吃某种食物,可以用变换花样的方法,改进烹调技术,引起孩子的食欲。
(2)、诱导孩子懂得吃各种食物的好处。如可以对孩子说“好好吃饭,吃各种菜,这样可以长得快、跳得高、力气大”“不偏食才会聪明”等。抚养者对食物发表的评论和推荐很容易吸引孩子。
(3)、注意环境的作用。孩子喜欢得到别人的赞许,可以在吃饭时适当鼓励,使其有一个良好的进食环境,增进孩子的食欲。孩子进食时最好不要有其他的干扰,有的抚养者让孩子一边吃饭一边看电视,这不仅影响孩子进食,也不利于孩子养成“专心”的习惯。
(4)、不要太娇惯。孩子总是处于“肚子饱饱”的状态是没有食欲的。其实纠正挑食毛病的最佳方法就是“饥饿疗法',饿了就要摄食,这是所有动物的天性,对于稍大些的孩子,抚养者大可不必追着孩子喂食了。
问:儿童生长发育
儿子是一个活泼开朗的外向的小调皮,在家里很多话又多事,但在幼儿园老师说好性格内向,从不跟老师说话,问他也不说话,问他的时候玩手指,很胆小的样子,但跟同学们玩,喜欢追赶,老师说这样以后升小学有问题,怎么改掉这么性格呢,是什么让他在家里和在学校成为两个人了呢
答:多数宝宝在家和在学校都不一样,因为家里安全,宝宝放松。 性格内向的宝宝也很可爱,他们爱思考,有深度,在某些领域比外向的宝宝更出色。您的宝宝从不跟老师说话,需要找找原因,跟别的叔叔阿姨是否说话?有的宝宝不是内向的问题,而是家长没有培养他们的主动性、独立性,行为退缩的问题。 行为退缩是家长处处包办代替、过渡保护造成的,尤其是一些老人带大的孩子。家长要及时纠正,多给宝宝自己做主的机会,鼓励他尝试、犯错误。
问:出去工作还是带孩子?
我很想出去工作,但又害怕把两个孩子放家里给婆婆带,让宝宝当留守儿童不好。那到底我应该如何是好?亲们,家里经济条件真的不好。只宝爸一个人工作肯定是非常拮据的。
答:你好,很高兴为你回答的--这个最好是不要让宝宝做留守儿童的,很可怜的,再说了,也是会影响到宝宝性格的发育的,最好是带着宝宝的,或是自己在家里做一点小买卖也是可以的,够宝宝零花的就行了,-希望我的回答能帮助你,祝你和宝宝健康
问:未来星儿童牛奶真的适合儿童吗
我的侄子3岁了,喜欢喝未来星儿童牛奶,请问这种牛奶可以代替配方奶粉吗?
答: 你好,宝宝3岁了可以喝鲜奶了,但最好还和奶粉搭配着喝,因为配方奶粉调整了蛋白质和脂肪结结构、钙磷比例,又添加了一些维生素、微量元素、核苷酸、多不饱和脂肪酸等婴幼儿生长发育必需的成分,克服了鲜奶的缺点,对孩子更健康。
问:儿童营养素,儿童吃了会怎样?
答:其实我觉得小孩子的话最好不要吃这样那样的营养品,因为他不可能是纯天然的,多多少少肯定会家了点添加剂甚至是激素在里面,如果宝宝senti各方面都很好的话,完全没有必要吃,即使是孩孩子身体不好也建议通过食补,通过多多进行户外运动,呼吸新鲜空气来解决。
农村留守儿童调查报告
莲山课件 原文地址:http://www.5ykj.com/Article/zjbgdcbg/72662.htm 作者:佚名调查内容:农村留守儿童
调查时间:2008年8月—2009年6
调查目的:通过对农村留守儿童情况的调查,对问题的分析提出自己的想法和意见。
调查地点:镇雄县场坝镇摩多小学
调查方法:教学工作参与、走访、访谈
随着农村父母离乡进城打工、经商人数的增多,农村儿童留守农村而无人照管的人数也在不断增多,调查显示:我国有1.2亿农民常年在城市务工经商,产生了近2000万留守儿童,其中14岁以下占86.5%.他们失去父母庇护,身心、学习、成长都面临着失管、失教和失衡,由此引发了诸多社会问题,同时,也引起了社会各界对这个群体的关注。 From the end of August 2008 to the end of June 2009, we went to Moda Elementary School, Changba Town, Zhenxiong County for nearly one year as a post-training internship.在这段时间中,我们在平时休息的过程中走访了一些家庭,对农村留守儿童也有了一顶的了解!结合此次调查,现对农村“留守儿童”问题的现状、成因及对策,提出如下调查意见。 I. Basic Overview
我们实习的地方是相对较贫困的农村地区。 The living conditions in this place are relatively difficult, the natural environment is also harsh, and the living standards of the people are not high. In order to change this phenomenon, many people are now going out to work in developed coastal areas in order to change this phenomenon.在这些外出打工的年轻人中,有很大一部分是“上有老,下有小”的这一类型!年轻人外出大工就把家里的孩子留给父母和亲戚来照顾!这就是大部分“留守儿童”的来源!
我所教的班有96个学生,其中就有30多个孩子是“留守儿童”。这些孩子差不多都是班里的问题学生!学习成绩普遍偏差、作业常常不按时完成、有孤独感和失落感的倾向,不愿与其他同学和小朋友交流、有娇纵、任性等坏脾气……
二、 农村留守儿童存在的主要问题及原因
我们在调查中发现这些孩子由于父母长年在外务工,留守在家由祖父母、外祖父母或其他亲戚朋友作为临时监护人,由他们照管孩子的一切,当然其中还存在家中无人看管的现象。 According to the family conditions of left-behind children, the family environment, the cultural quality of temporary guardians, and the age of many other factors, there are the following types of left-behind children's problems.
(1)、无能为力,只管“吃”的放纵型。
These children are mainly in families with poor living conditions and poor guardianship. These groups are old, frail, low-cultural, less knowledgeable, and burdened. Because they are not rich, they have to plant a family's field at home, feed pigs and cattle, etc. They are busy with farm work every day, and they have no time to take care of their children. They only cook and wash laundry for their children. Especially during the busy farming season, they can't even care about eating. Many children have to cook or starve themselves. Many children also take care of all the housework at home, and sometimes even children who are a few years old have to go to work.至于如何教育孩子,对于“听话”的孩子很满意,不听话的孩子只是说说而已。 Concern about learning is even more difficult to talk about.对于孩子心里想的什么? what do you need?有什么感受?都一概不知或是根本没想到要关心。 In fact, this phenomenon is common in left-behind children's families.他们的父母忙于挣钱,自己和祖父母忙于农活、家务,对自己的教育、成长都无人关心,使自己本应得到温暖、关爱的童年变为“早熟的大人”。
(2)、隔代教育,只顾“给”的溺爱型。
Many left-behind children are only children. Parents are not at home and are watched by father-in-law.由于代沟所致,爷爷奶奶更心痛孩子,在家里各方面都给予“关爱”,常常是孩子要什么就给什么,宁愿自己吃苦受累,不吃不喝,也要让孩子玩好、吃好,对于生活细节不予指导或误导。 When problems arise, they are usually sheltered, encouraged, and talked about seriously. In this way, the child develops coquettishness, willfulness, habits of self-centeredness, lack of mutual assistance and love experience, fear of difficulties and setbacks. As a result, children are loved by their families, and the arduousness of family education increases.宠坏的孩子越来越不“听话”,经常对人无礼貌,喜欢惹是生非,学习懒散……。
(3)、寄居他家,无法管的放纵型。
Some of the left-behind children in the countryside were fostered by relatives or friends. There is always a feeling of being hosted by the children who live in it, because after all, they are not living and living with their loved ones. Some of them always feel that their relatives are not as free as they are in their own homes. They are timid and fearful, and they are very responsible. But once they leave the relatives, it ’s like a mouse leaving a cat. They are lawless. There are also some children who are so daring that their relatives can't help it, and some can collide with them. When the relatives weigh a little bit, they hate or flee, leaving the relatives helpless to dare to discipline, and they can only let it go.
因此,这个群体的孩子通常出现以下几个方面的突出问题:
1、学生成绩不佳,在校表现不优。进入学龄阶段的儿童一天的大部分时间是在学校度过,其主要任务是学习:学会求知,学会生活,学会做人,学会创造。 However, according to the survey, among the left-behind children in rural areas, there is still a strong interest in learning at the elementary school level, and their academic performance and school performance are relatively good, and there are many excellent ones.但到了初中阶段,情况就发生了变化,极少的留守儿童能表现为优秀,我们调查中发现,初中留守儿童中学习成绩和在校表现都优秀的不到10%,良好的不到30%,学习和生活习惯都很差且行为出现问题的儿童却占了近30%,而且在所有“问题儿童”中,留守儿童占80%。
2、亲情缺失严重,心理发展异常。 Adolescence is a crucial period for personality development and formation. Parental care, a good family environment and education play an irreplaceable role in the healthy development of adolescents' personality.但是,农村留守儿童们由于其父母长时间不在身边,家庭的“缺陷”使留守子女无法享受到正常的亲情关爱,生活中的烦恼无法向亲人倾诉,成长中的困惑无法得到父母的正确引导和鼓励......久而久之,无助感,失落感和被遗弃感逐渐形成,严重影响着留守子女心理的健康成长。 In the survey, we found that the vast majority of left-behind children rarely meet with their parents and lack communication.其中,与父母见面半年一次的为53%,一年一次的为44%,两年一次的有3%,还有一个孩子的父母双双外出六年未曾回过一次家。农村留守儿童在个性心理上表现极为异常,有这样两种典型“症状”:一是性格内向、孤僻、自卑、不合群、不善于与人交流;二是脆弱、脾气暴躁、冲动易怒。
3. The father loves the mother, and the child's ambition is blurred. As migrant parents have not been with their children for a long time, they often feel a sense of guilt in their hearts. Together with working outside, their economy is more abundant and their economic ability to pay for their children's lives is stronger. Therefore, they often use material compensation for their children to show all their love for their children. Children can get what they want very easily, never hesitate and never discount.这种爱的方式,在儿童的心理边逐渐形成了儿童的“金钱万能”的价值观和“逍遥享乐”的人生观。 They do not have any concepts of hard work, frugality, hard work, impersonality, and no correct orientation or life orientation.
4、家庭教育缺失,越轨现象严重。家庭教育是人生所需全部教育中不可缺少的一个重要方面,家庭教育最早最直接地影响着青少年的成长健康与否。我们调查中发现,农村留守儿童由于缺乏父母的有效监管,生活习惯和行为习惯都不好。在家里,他们不讲求个人卫生,早上不洗脸漱口就吃饭,晚上不洗脚洗澡就往被子里钻;在学校,他们的学习没有计划,没有兴趣,拖欠或不交家庭作业现象严重,不遵守校纪校规,自由散漫,迟到、早退、旷课现象经常发生。在社会上,他们缺乏礼貌待人的常识,他们中抽烟的有,赌博的有,打架的有,酗酒的也有,沉迷于网吧的更是不乏其人,还有谈情说爱的,有些甚至还发生了性行为。在未成年人的生理和心理没有发育完全之前,对社会上的各种复杂、不良现象缺乏足够的判断力和抵抗力,需要正确的引导和教育,而留守家庭一般都却无法给予,从而导致留守子女极易产生犯罪和越轨行为。
留守儿童问题出现的主要原因有:
1.监护人自身因素有欠缺。 First, the sense of responsibility is not strong. In the eyes of a guardian other than a parent, they think that the child's parents are not around, and they cannot be too strict with them, and they should deal with more love, otherwise they will distort the child and feel that the parents who are not their own do not know how to love themselves. Second, the responsibility for guardianship is unclear.监护人往往从身体健康方面考虑问题,重吃饭穿衣轻学习教养;重身体健康而忽视心理健康和全面发展;关心儿童在学校和家里的表现;忽视儿童良好行为习惯的养成。 The third is that the monitoring energy cannot keep up. Since most of the guardians are elderly and older, some even have to guard several left-behind children at the same time, so the energy of each left-behind child is not enough. Coupled with their poor physical condition, which requires human care, education of left-behind children can only be more than adequate. Fourth, the guardian's own quality is low. They do not know how to take care of children psychologically, they do not know how to educate them in terms of laws, safety, health knowledge, etc., nor can they help and guide them in their studies, so that the education of left-behind children has basically lost its focus.
2. Rural economic and social development lags behind. Today, on the one hand, the rapid development of the whole society and economy, on the other hand, the economic and social development of rural areas is relatively lagging, especially in remote mountain villages. Therefore, farmers have to find ways to improve the family's economic and living conditions, so that their children can get rid of this predicament that no generations can get rid of. When the most basic life problems can not be solved, they can only choose to work in cities to earn money to support their families, so that children grow up in incomplete families and grow up in the changes of mobility-left-behind-flow. Therefore, we believe that the lagging economic and social development in rural areas is the most fundamental cause of the problems of left-behind children.
3. Parents lack the concept of sustainable family development. We found through investigation that although the families of left-behind children in the rural areas are not rich, they are not impoverished and have nowhere to stay. Most of them can maintain the normal life of their families through hard work in their hometowns, but they seek to quickly improve their family lives , Pursue to provide sufficient financial support for children's growth, at the expense of leaving their families and children, leaving the countryside to work in the city. Their only gain is the paper money that makes them feel satisfied, and what they lose is the family's affection, the sacrifice of their children's future, causing more and more serious social problems. So these are all things that they can't buy with money. What's more terrible is that their own family can't get normal development.
4. Complex social factors are hard to blame. Due to the incomplete family life, left-behind children are too involved in all aspects of society too early, but because of their innocence and youngness, they cannot correctly handle the complicated social information and conditions from all aspects of society, and they cannot distinguish between right and wrong. Therefore, online games, pornographic images, underworld forces, and so on, have formed a deep impression on their young minds. They regard things that are incompatible with society and morals as fashionable pursuits, as idols, worship, imitate, Black as white, right as wrong, and then they have a lot of unhealthy and even wrong things in their psychological development, there are many confusions and problems. For example, smoking and drinking are cool, costumes are cool in different costumes, buddies are heroes with a sense of devotion, love, wife and husband are essentials, and everything else is a problem for most left-behind children. This social environment also leaves a lot of hidden dangers to society itself.
社会因素中还有一个不可忽视的方面就是:歧视农民工子弟。 Due to the supremacy of departmental interests, the policies that have been formulated by governments at all levels regarding migrant children's children to receive equal education at their parents' work places cannot be implemented, and migrant children's children cannot enjoy the same educational rights as local children.三思考与建议
当前,农村留守儿童的问题不单是外出务工人员的家庭问题或者是留守儿童自身的问题,更是一个全社会都不容忽视的综合性问题;不单是一个留守儿童的教育问题,更是一个其自身全面发展与健康成长的问题;如果得不到及时关注和解决,家庭与社会都将会为此付出沉重的代价。 Therefore, all families, the entire society and even governments at all levels should understand this issue from the perspective of constructing a harmonious society, take human survival and development as the basis, take effective measures, and actively and steadily solve them. Our investigation team has put forward our recommendations from both the near and long term.
鉴于目前留守儿童群体客观存在的现实,我们建议近期解决留守儿童问题应该从下面几个方面采取措施:
1、建立健全留守儿童工作机制。 Caring for left-behind children is a systematic project of the whole society, which requires the participation and effort of the whole society.建立以市、县(市、区)、乡(镇)政府为主相关部门共同参与的工作责任制,县(市)、乡(镇)政府成立“关爱留守儿童工作”领导小组,制定“关爱留守儿童工作”行动计划和具体措施,实行属地管理为住的原则,将留守儿童工作纳入对县(市、区)、乡(镇)政府全年工作考核目标,形成政府、学校、社区、家庭、邻里多方协同推进的工作格局。
2. Improve and implement relevant laws and policies to ensure that children of migrant workers enjoy equal educational rights at the place of work. Governments at all levels should further improve the systems and mechanisms for children of migrant workers in cities to receive education at work sites so that children of migrant workers can truly enjoy the same educational rights as local children in their parents' places of work.对已有的政策在实施过程中要加强监督和落实,不要纸上写的“同等”,实际操作中人为地制造各种障碍。 Enjoying a balanced modern education is the right that every child, including rural children, deserves. It is also the general education goal of our government. At the same time, it is necessary to reform the management of student status, establish mobile student status for the children of migrant workers in other places, cancel the system of students from other places who must return to their places of origin to take the entrance examination, college entrance examinations, and other systems. Minimize the barriers to entry for children of migrant workers in the cities where their parents work, and ensure that they enjoy the same rights to receive the same education as local children, so that parents who have been migrant workers for a long time can bring their children to school, reducing or reducing Eliminate left-behind children.
3. Cultivate and support rural left-behind children's service agencies based on non-governmental organizations.在农村留守儿童问题无法从根本上得到解决之前,各级政府应该通过政策引导,鼓励民间资金和社会力量兴办留守儿童服务站等多种形式的托管服务机构,利用社会优质资源(如优秀退休教师等),切实为农村留守儿童提供高质量的健康成长服务。
4. Make great efforts to optimize the social environment for children's growth. Since the reform and opening up, the social economy of our country has achieved rapid development.但与此同时,大量的社会矛盾也日益加剧,使得年轻一代成长的社会大环境在不断恶化。因此,各级各部门必须下大力气从小事抓起,严肃治理在不断恶化的社会环境,严厉打击破坏儿童成长环境的人和事;报刊、广播、电视、互联网等大众媒体要围绕关爱儿童尤其是留守儿童成长的主题,一方面宣传“以人为本”“儿童优先”“为国教子”“以德育人”等新观念新风尚,另一方面用积极的健康的题材武装青少年一代的头脑,引导他们正确辨别是非,引导他们积极向上生活、学习和做人。
然而,要从根本上解决农村留守儿童问题需要全社会,尤其是各级党委政府的领导干部,坚持以人为本,树立科学的可持续的发展观和政绩观,努力构建真正意义上的和谐社会。
我们必须全面加快新农村建设进程。发展农村经济,提高农村人口素质是解决农村留守儿童问题的根本途径。目前,在党中央的正确领导下,新农村建设可以说是热火朝天,农村正在发生着“翻天覆地”的变化。但是,很多新农村建设的示范村、示范片都是在基础较好的地方锦上添花更上一层楼的新型政绩工程,真正基础差经济落后的地方却无人问津,可以说是从未盼到过高级领导的“现场办公”,致使新型落后地区在产生,新的不和谐在形成,致使种地方的农民不得不继续通过进城打工的途径来维系家庭的生存,从而导致留守儿童群体和留守儿童问题有增无减。因此,落实党中央的加快新农村建设任务,我们应该坚持全面发展观,不仅“锦上添花”,而且“雪中送炭”;不仅注重修道路建楼房,而且重视办好教育提高人口素质;不仅发展经济提高收入,而且关注民本民生优化社会环境。总之,就是要建设全面和谐的新农村,最终实现从根本上解决农村留守儿童这一重大社会问题的目的。 关于农村留守儿童调研报告
来源:文秘114 → 总结报告→ 调研报告随着我国改革开放的不断深入,在社会主义市场经济的推动下,越来越多的农民工背井离乡进城打工。有些农民工把子女扔给了老人监护或寄养他人,于是在我国广大农村中出现一个新的群体--留守儿童。有资料显示,目前全国农村“留守儿童”规模已达2290万人,而且这个数字还将在未来几年成较大规模的上升趋势。因此,留守儿童问题虽然得到了各级党委、政府及社会的广泛关注,但是留守儿童问题仍然是当今社会值得关注的一个重要课题。就留守儿童存在的问题,笔者在仪征市马集镇方营村进行了走访和调查,并对留守儿童问题谈一些初浅的看法。一、基本情况方营村位于马集镇北首,共有20个村民小组。常住户540户,现有人口1950人。土地面积2684亩,其中花园800亩。现有机械加工、玩具、生态园等企业8家。三业总产值2500万元,人均纯收入9611元。我村大部分群众迫于生计挤进了打工队伍中去,成为打工一族,把子女扔给了老人监护或寄养他人。据调查,全村有留守儿童43人,其中在校小学生中就有18位留守儿童,占学生总数的41.9%,老人监护的有35人,占81.4%,寄养他人的有2人,占4.7%。二、留守儿童存在的主要问题1、留守儿童成绩欠佳。大部分的留守儿童学习成绩中等偏下,其中17%的小学生成绩较差,4%的小学生成绩很差;留守儿童中有1%的人上学经常迟到,有时迟到的高达27%,11%的留守儿童有过逃学的经历。分析原因,一是打工父母对子女总体期待不高,部分农民潜意识里认为,农村孩子学业有成的机率不大,对孩子的学习总体期望值较低。二是监护人对留守儿童学习介入过少。作为一个特殊的监护群体,这些老人普遍年龄大,身体差,文盲比例较高,不但在学习上无法给留守儿童切实有效的帮助和辅导,而且由于隔代监护,存在明显的沟通障碍,教育管理上弊端较多。加之他们还要承担家务劳动和田间农活,基本没有时间和精力去关注孩子的学习。 2、留守儿童心理出现偏差。父母长期在外打工,留守儿童得不到父母的关爱、呵护和照顾。由于亲情缺失,儿童缺少情感和心理关怀,缺少倾诉和寻求帮助的对象,与外界不愿意接触或接触太少,导致一些留守儿童表现出内心封闭、情感冷漠、行为孤僻等个性特征,不同程度地存在性格缺陷和心理障碍,有的留守儿童情绪消极,有的出现逆反心理、怨恨情绪。留守儿童大多年龄在1-15岁之间,正是情感、品德、性格形成和发展的关键时期。有的出生几个月后,父母就外出务工,长期与父母分离,使他们生理和心理上的需要得不到满足,缺乏父母的关爱,亲情失落,产生孤独感,心理失衡。据调查显示,留守儿童想念父母的占85%,有38%的留守儿童父母每半年回来1次,30%的留守儿童父母每年回来1次,8%的留守儿童父母几年回来1次,55%的留守儿童很少与父母电话联系。有的留守儿童从小父母就长期在外打工,一年难得回一次,性格发生了很大的变化,变得孤独、自卑、冷漠、少语,很少或不愿与教师和同学们进行交流和玩耍,只与个别人来往。这是典型的留守儿童心理出现了偏差。据调查此类心理现象的儿童占留守儿童的14.3%。 3、留守儿童生活普遍较差。由于我村老百姓普遍文化素质较低,大部分未掌握专长和技术,外出打工大部分从事的是劳动密集性工种,干的是苦活、累活,且工资收入微薄,只能基本维持家人和儿女的生活。儿童正是长身体的时候,由于家庭经济收入少,父母又长期在外,难以顾及到儿童的生活情况,导致部分留守儿童营养严重不足,身体健康受到极大损害。据调查显示,80%的留守儿童生活较差,20%的留守儿童生活一般。 4、留守儿童道德行为较差。处于义务教育阶段的儿童少年,自律能力很弱。由于父母不在身边,儿童和监护人之间关系特殊,只要不犯大错,监护人对孩子的行为一般都采取认可态度,由于缺乏及时有效的约束管教,不少留守儿童纪律散漫、存在行为偏差。不少留守孩子在家里不听祖辈教导,在学校道德品行较差,不遵守规章制度,常有迟到、旷课、逃学,说谎打架,欺负同学等行为,有的迷恋桌球室、网吧和游戏厅,甚至与社会上一些有不良习气的成人混在一起。5、留守儿童安全难以得到保障。在留守儿童中,由于父母长期不在身边,缺乏对儿童的安全监管,加之部分监护人和代养人对留守儿童的安全教育不够、意识不强、监护不力,导致部分留守儿童的安全难以得到保障。特别是在双休、寒暑假期间,脱离了学校管理回到家中,临时监护人和代养人的管理难以到位,存在极大的安全隐患,甚至出现安全事故。我村前几年一男孩在河边玩耍时不慎掉入水渠中,溺水身亡。三、留守儿童存在问题的主要原因1、学校对留守儿童的教育措施不力。近年来,随着教育体制改革的不断深入,探索出一系列行之有效,能适应新时期学校教育的方法和措施。但在调查中发现,对留守儿童的教育方面还存在一定的不足。一是留守儿童的父母长期在外,学校教师与家长的沟通难度真大,有时半年甚至一年难见留守儿童父母一面,很难反映孩子在学校的真实表现和存在的问题,难以实现家庭和学校共同教育的目的。二是外出打工人员对孩子的教育过于依赖学校教育,但学校教育由于学生多,教学任务重,教师没有精力,心有余而力不足,对留守儿童的心理关爱难以顾及。三是学校对留守儿童的教育和管理缺乏有效的措施,很难在学习上、生活上给留守儿童更多的关心和爱护,并针对性给留守儿童提供良好的学习环境和教育环境。 2、家庭对留守儿童的教育意识淡薄。父母是儿童成长的第一任教师,家庭教育是伴随孩子的终身教育。因此,家庭教育对孩子行为、心理健康、道德观念与智力发展将起着决定的因素。但在调查中发现,留守儿童的家庭教育尤为淡薄。一是父母与留守子女沟通少,缺乏亲情上的交流,对孩子的成长漠不关心,放任自流,顺其自然发展。二是监护人和代养人大多数是老年人,文化程度不高,有的是文盲和半文盲,家庭教育意识模糊,大多偏于溺爱,以生活照顾为主,且知识、能力上难以承担对孩子的道德培养和学习辅导的任务。三是父母对留守儿童只是给予物质上的满足,孩子吃得饱、穿得暖就行了,缺乏对留守儿童精神上的鼓励、鞭策与开导。四是对留守儿童的教育方法不对,父母认为教育是学校的事、老师的事,孩子能否健康成长直接取决于学校和老师,事实上成为孩子学习、身心发展的旁观者。 3、社会对留守儿童的教育关注不够。近年来,社会上的一些不良风气现象严重,对缺乏父母关爱,并在成长中留守儿童的思想上受社会不良风气的影响,心理、生理受到不同程度的扭曲。一是农村社会教育薄弱,教育资源缺乏,教育观念陈旧,不能有效地弥补缺乏父母关爱的留守儿童的不足;二是一些娱乐场所缺乏有效管理,在互联网、电视、书刊等文化传播媒体中,庸俗、低劣、暴力、色情等腐蚀内容屡禁不止,对缺乏父母关爱、亲情关爱的留守儿童具有腐蚀性和诱惑力。四、对策及建议1、健全制度,完善留守儿童的管理措施。各级政府和学校都要积极探索对留守儿童管理措施的新途径和新办法。严格责任追究,校领导为第一责任人,班主任为直接责任人,切实履行好管理和教育留守儿童的责任。加强对寄宿制学校的教学、生活、安全方面的管理,对留守儿童采取寄宿制管理。加强留守儿童在双休和寒暑假期间的安全教育,解决留守儿童无人照看,学习和安全得不到保障的问题,从而解除进城务工农民工的后顾之忧。 2、加大投入,改善农民工子女受教育环境。近年来,外出打工人员不断增多,各级政府都在大力发展外向型经济、民营经济和劳务经济,可见劳务经济在社会进步、社会发展中起着重要的作用。因此,各级政府对留守儿童的教育投入要下大力气,出台有利于外出打工人员子女受教育的优惠政策,并禁止一切影响和限制家民工子女就近入学的条条框框,免除一切不合理收费,使打工子女在教育方面享受与城市儿童同等的待遇,重新唤起他们的自信,进而激发他们的学习热情。 3、创新机制,实现家庭、学校和社会共同关注的有机统一。对于留守儿童,以家庭为主体,加强学校、社会的正面教育和引导,建立行之有效的家庭、学校和社会联动的运作机制。家庭要承担起教育孩子的重要责任,给予必要的家庭关爱和亲情关怀,家长要与学校和老师经常保持联系,随时了解子女的学习和生长情况,并对他们进行及时的引导教育。学校要肩负起教育好留守儿童的责任,并有针对性的开展有利于留守儿童身心健康的教育和活动,大力开发他们的潜力,激活他们的斗志,增强他们的自信心和心理承受能力。政府要加大对留守儿童关爱的宣传力度,形成全社会共同关注留守儿童的良好氛围,保证他们与健全家庭一样健康成长。 农村留守儿童的现在,在某种程度上关系到我国未来人口和劳动力素质,关系到农村经济社会的协调发展,也关系到城乡社会稳定,因此值得全社会高度关注。

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