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Maintenance, car repair and driving knowledge

Source: Time: 2020-01-28 19:17:28

Millennium Tongzhou vitality north stream

Recently, I found it on the Internet, sorted it out a little bit-friends who have cars and cars must read it. Have a nice day!
20 things to know when driving
1. The stronger the high-beam light at night is, the safer it is to drive; error, the greater the angle of the light, the safer it is, and the higher the light, the brighter the more dangerous it is.
2. Frequently using large throttle is not good for the engine; wrong, the speed of the engine in gear is often mentioned above 4000 is not only harmless, but also has certain benefits to the engine. It is often harmful to the engine by stepping on the accelerator in neutral or for a long time at high speed. not good.
3, habitual stepping on the clutch is a way to reduce trouble; mistakes, habitual stepping on the clutch is not only bad for the machine, but it will be more troublesome and more importantly unsafe.
4. It is safe to lock the central door when the car is running. Error, this is an extremely dangerous method. Once the car has an accident, it will not be able to open the door, so the danger rate is further increased. To prevent thieves from robbing the contents of the car, it is best to lock the central door when the traffic is blocked or when waiting for traffic lights.
5. It is customary to only tighten the handbrake after parking; wrong, after parking on uneven ground, you must not only apply the handbrake but also hang it in gear. This is the best way to prevent the car from falling due to uneven road surfaces.
6. If there are two lanes when driving in one direction, it is safest to drive with a dashed line; mistakes, this is most likely to cause an accident, because both the forward and backward vehicles cannot judge your intention to drive.
7. It is safest to drive on the brakes while stepping on the clutch when turning at high speeds. Error, do not step on the clutch. In any case, driving on the clutch will increase the inertia of the car. You should lower the gear and then drive on the brakes.
8. The car is equipped with ABS system to shorten the braking distance. Error, the biggest advantage of ABS is not to shorten the braking distance, but to prevent the tire from locking. Therefore, even if the brake is stepped on under special circumstances, its steering wheel can also control the car. Direction, learning to cushion the braking distance after emergency braking is the key to understanding ABS.
9. When encountering other unskilled drivers or offenders, he should be reminded through the horn or headlights; mistakes, he should be away from him as soon as possible, and pressing the horn or headlights will only increase his nervousness, making it more difficult for him to control the car.
10. When turning or merging, you should first look at the reflectors; if you are wrong, you should turn your head to look at the back of the car before looking at the reflectors, because sometimes the reflectors are not adjusted properly and there will be dead angles. In addition, turning on the lights will cause Vehicles near you increase the chance of speeding up or slowing down, and the correctness cannot be completely judged by the reflector alone.
11. Listen to a concert while driving to distract the driver's attention; mistakes, good audio facilities and your favorite music can further suppress the mental state of fatigue and further adjust the better mental state.
12. When driving, only pay attention to maintaining the distance between the front and rear vehicles. Error, in addition to maintaining a safe distance from the front and back, you should also try to avoid running side by side with the left and right hand vehicles. Stagger side by side by speeding overtaking or slowing down. The biggest disadvantage of driving is distraction, which can easily distract attention from the front to the left and right, and it is more likely to cause nervousness for beginner drivers.
13. The closer the driver ’s seat is to the steering wheel, the more secure it is; mistake, which is purely psychological, but the closer to the steering wheel, the more likely it is to increase tension. In addition to not affecting the control of the hands, the farther the driver ’s seat is from the steering wheel, the better. First, the vision is wider when driving, and the left and right eyes will see more. The second is that the seat is too close to the steering wheel, which will inevitably drive with legs. It is easy to fatigue for a long time. The third is that the body and the car are in an emergency. The console and steering wheel have ample room for buffering and a high safety factor.
14. Except that the position of the window mirror is not attached to the solar film, a large area of the solar film is not affected by driving; mistakes, the driver's vision is not only the front, the side and rear also need to be seen often, affecting the driver's vision This increases the level of danger and, in addition, reduces driver pleasure.
15. When driving at high speed, one side of the wheel suddenly presses on the pavement of water. It is dangerous; it is dangerous if you step on the brake blindly. In this case, it is more important and safer to control the steering wheel than step on the brake.
16. On smooth roads, you should learn to use hand brakes and foot brakes to control the car's driving; mistakes, you should learn to use good gears to control the car's driving.
17. Fuel-saving when driving in neutral; wrong, there is no scientific basis, fuel-saving driving when driving, but the two are equally unsafe.
18. People who are accustomed to driving fast have high driving skills; those who are wrong and have good driving skills are accurate and decisive, and take the worst possible into account.
19. When speeding and overtaking, firstly observe and judge the situation of the vehicle coming ahead; wrong, firstly observe and judge the situation of driving behind, and then observe and judge the situation of ahead if it is determined that there is no vehicle behind to overtake yourself.
20. It is safer to turn on the front and rear fog lights at night; it is wrong and more dangerous, especially the white light beam of the front fog lights is very strong, and the vehicles that drive on the opposite side will also affect their own safety. Fog lights can be used only during severe weather, day or night.
Misunderstanding of vehicle driving operation
At present, there are some misunderstandings in the driving operation of vehicles. The reason why it is called a misunderstanding is that some people's practices and habits violate objective laws and scientific grounds, but they think they are right and do their own thing. Here is an example of some of the more typical misunderstandings, and point out the dangers, so as to arouse the attention of car owners friends.
First, after the engine starts, before the vehicle starts and stops, it always habitually bombards a few throttles.
This habit is more of an "inadvertent training" of self-driving school coaches. I remember that this was a compulsory course when I tested the textbook, saying that it was observing the ammeter and charging the battery. At first glance, it sounds reasonable, but in fact this is the most typical addictive action in driving operation. The harm is:
1. During cold start, because there is no lubricating oil film on the cylinder wall, the violent throttle (especially in winter) will cause the piston ring and the cylinder wall to perform relatively dry friction at high speed, causing early engine wear and shortening the service life of the engine;
2. Throttled space-time bombing before starting and stopping is essentially a waste and pollutes the environment. Because of the blast of the throttle, not only the main fuel supply device participates in the work, but the enrichment and acceleration devices also need to supply additional fuel, causing waste; at the same time, the mixture is additionally enriched, causing incomplete combustion and generating harmful substances.
Second, start, stop on the ramp, half foot throttle, half foot brake
This operation method is mostly manifested in the drivers of plateaus and mountainous areas, which is a taboo for driving operations. Its harm is mainly: the reliability and accuracy of the operation is poor. In the event of slipping on or slipping into the air, the consequences are either forward rush or backward slip, resulting in a collision with vehicles in front and behind: The density and flow are large, and the S distance in the workshop is generally very small (sometimes only about 1 meter). From time to time, there are also some unruly pedestrians walking through. At this time, if the above method is adopted, if an operation error occurs, the consequence is not only a collision, but also a collision accident.
Third, dragging
This practice is said to save fuel. In fact, according to the fuel-saving principle, whether to save fuel is related to whether the vehicle is in the best working condition. In general, the lower the gear used, the smaller the throttle opening, the worse the power utilization, and the higher the fuel consumption. As long as the road conditions permit, you should try to use high gear and keep at medium speed. If the vehicle is often towed in high gear, its harm:
1. It can be known from the load characteristics that the throttle opening is small, the engine load rate is low, and the fuel consumption is high;
2. The vehicle is often in the state of dragging, and its transmission mechanisms such as clutches, transmissions, transmission shafts, and differentials will cause early damage and shorten service life due to continuous impact. At the same time, the noise emitted by the tow will make the passengers on the vehicle unbearable;
3. Towing and blocking, when an emergency situation is required to speed up and cross the obstacle immediately, although the accelerator is depressed, the speed cannot be raised immediately, thereby delaying the favorable opportunity and causing passiveness.
Fourth, driving at low temperature
In summer, the driver deliberately controlled the water temperature to a low level due to the baking of the engine to reduce the heat radiation of the engine or the fear of the water tank being opened. Its harm:
1. Too much heat is lost through the cylinder wall, piston and other parts, which causes the pressure and temperature of the gas in the cylinder to decrease during work, the power of the engine is reduced, and the fuel consumption is increased. According to the test, the water temperature is reduced from 90 ° C to 80 ° C, and the fuel consumption is 2% to 5%, and to 75 ° C, it is 3% to 5%, and to 65 ° C, the fuel is 15%.
2. The oil viscosity increases, it is difficult to form an oil film on the friction surface, and the movement resistance of the parts increases;
3. Gasoline is not easy to evaporate and atomize, the mixture is not formed well, and the combustion is incomplete.
V. Throttle-brake-throttle, simple cycle operation
Such operating habits are mostly manifested in beginners and impatient drivers. When driving, they do not prejudge the traffic on the road, but rely too much on braking. Developed a simple cycle operation when the brake is applied when the situation is encountered, and the situation is accelerated immediately after the situation. As a result, the brake is also used in many occasions where the brake is not needed, and too lazy to shift gears, thereby increasing the number of times the brake is used. The harm is:
1. Frequent use of braking will cause excessive wear on the braking system and tires;
2. It is difficult for the vehicle's kinetic energy and inertial force to be effectively exerted, which reduces the economy of the vehicle;
3. Accelerating rapidly after braking, forcing the vacuum, mechanical enrichment device, acceleration device and main fuel supply device to all participate in the work, which additionally increases fuel consumption.
Change bad habits early
Driving a car in accordance with regulations is an important guarantee for driving safety. Especially for new drivers, developing good driving habits can benefit for life. Do you have any of these bad habits while driving?
Steering wheel: When the car turns, hold the steering wheel with your left or right hand. Although this saves steering effort, it is easy to hurt your wrist when the car is turned upside down, especially when you return to the wheel, especially your wrist. The return speed is slow, which is extremely prone to traffic accidents.
Stepping on the clutch for a long time: In order to save trouble for some old drivers, new drivers are afraid of the vehicle stalling, leaving their left foot off the clutch. Over a long period of time, the clutch plate will burn, the crankshaft thrust plate, and the drive axle gear will be damaged.
Fasten your seat belt while driving: After the car starts, the driver discovers that the seat belt is not fastened, so he holds the steering wheel in one hand and pulls the seat belt in one hand. At this time, due to uneven force, the vehicle is easy to deviate.
Finding a gear while driving: When some new drivers are shifting gears, they may look down and look down. This action is extremely dangerous.
Distracting while driving: rubbing your eyes, tickling, flapping mosquitoes in the cab, touching something in the back seat, lighting a cigarette, using a cell phone, watching a pager, picking up items, and more. These will divert attention and cause traffic accidents.
Hands do not leave the gear: The driver is comfortable, and often holds the steering wheel in one hand and rests on the gear, not to mention that the steering wheel cannot be held when the steering is slow or the car is bumpy. The weight of the body is transmitted to the gear through the arms and palms. Over time, this will cause the gearbox gears to mesh instably and cause damage to the vehicle.
There are also very bad habits, such as parallel lines, turning lights without turning, taxiing in neutral, taxiing in neutral, slamming the accelerator, not pulling the handbrake or forgetting to release the handbrake. Driver friends, especially new drivers, should start little by little and develop good habits.
Use the steering wheel (ZT) correctly (1/2)
The first step in traffic safety is to learn to use the steering wheel. How to use the steering wheel correctly?
(1) Maintain a good driving posture
The correct driving posture can reduce the driver's fatigue and facilitate the use of various driving controls, observation of various instruments, and the situation in front of and behind the vehicle. What is the normal driving posture? First, align your body with the steering wheel and keep it straight after you get in the car, and lean your back lightly on the back seat. At this time, you can adjust the seat back and forth to a suitable state according to your height. Vehicles with seat belts must be fastened according to regulations. seat belt. Second, with both eyes looking straight ahead, gently hold the upper left of the steering wheel with the left hand (at 9-10 o'clock), and gently hold the upper left of the steering wheel with the right hand (at 3-4 o'clock) and let both hands relax naturally. At this time, the left and right hands are large. The thumb should be naturally straight up against the upper part of the steering wheel rim, and the remaining four fingers should be gently held from the outside to the inside. Third, the left foot is placed under the clutch pedal, and the right foot is lightly placed at 2/3 of the accelerator pedal. In short, you can sit on the seat with a relaxed, comfortable, natural body and coordinated and flexible movements.
(2) Cultivate a good sense of direction
When starting on a flat road, you should maintain the correct driving posture, look ahead, look far and near, and take care of both sides. You must not look down at the parts. When using a steering wheel on a straight road, the movements of both hands should be balanced and cooperate with each other to avoid unnecessary shaking. If the steering wheel is affected by bumps on the road, the front wheel is subject to shock and shock, and the steering wheel should be held tightly to avoid The steering wheel is turned by the violent vibration of the vehicle, hurting your fingers or wrists. If the front heading deviates to the left (right), you should correct the direction to the right (left). When the heading is close to the driving line, gradually turn the steering wheel back to normal. At this time, the direction of correction should be less and less to avoid the phenomenon of drawing dragons. At this time, the principle of the direction of returning should be kept in mind: how many times to hit, how much to hit less, slow to hit slowly, big to hit, fast to hit fast return. During the correction of the direction, many people are prone to the problem of staring at the head of the car. When the head is obviously deflected and then the direction is corrected, it is mostly late at this time, and eventually the vehicle is always left on the road and then left and right again. The phenomenon of drawing the dragon, some drivers are too large when returning to the positive direction, and when they find that the head is deflected, they quickly correct in the opposite direction, so that the constant correction of the direction is the root cause of the rubbing direction. In addition to exacerbating the wear of the components, it also increases the driver's fatigue level, and more importantly, has an adverse effect on safe driving.
How to use ABS
ABS is the abbreviation of Anti-Lock Brake System, which was originally applied to aircraft technology. With the continuous maturity of the automotive industry, vehicle speeds have gradually increased, and it has been widely used as an active safety system Used in cars.
When the vehicle is running, if the brake is suddenly applied, it is easy to make the braking resistance exceed the resistance between the tire and the ground, the wheel will lock up, the wheel and the ground will change from rolling friction to sliding friction, and frictional heat will cause contact with the ground A slight amount of melting occurs on the surface of the wheel, forming a medium close to the liquid on the friction surface, greatly reducing the adhesion, causing the vehicle to lose its steering ability and even flicking its sides. This phenomenon is even more pronounced on snowy or wet roads! ABS effectively improves the handling performance during braking, and provides a favorable guarantee for driving safety.
Today, most vehicles are equipped with ABS systems.
How to use it properly?
First: correctly understand ABS, if we say that ABS can greatly shorten the braking distance, it is a bit exaggerated. The main function of ABS is to improve the maneuverability during braking, that is, the steering ability, and it is not very obvious to shorten the braking distance. Even on uneven roads, gravel, or snowy roads, the operation of ABS may cause the braking distance to be longer than that of vehicles without ABS. So when driving a car equipped with ABS, do not be too casual, too close to the car, violently turning or forcing the line are very dangerous.
Second: The ABS system does not work every time the brake is taken, it only works when the wheels are approximately locked. It should be noted that when it works, it is not silent. If the ABS works while pressing the brake pedal, it will generate appropriate noise, and the brake pedal will also generate pulsations and repeatedly arch. This is the system's automatic adjustment system. Dynamic oil pressure is normal.
Third: Some drivers who are accustomed to driving without ABS are used to improve the braking effect by pressing the brake pedal back and forth during emergency braking. This operation method has been automatically implemented on vehicles with ABS. So this kind of manipulation method is not only superfluous, but also hinders the normal work of the ABS system, but its performance is greatly reduced. Therefore, it is correct to always hold the brake pedal with your feet and not relax when taking the brake.
Fourth: When the ABS system fails, the ABS fault warning light on the instrument panel will automatically light up to remind the driver. At this time, don't panic, just drive the car to a regular service station for maintenance, but don't continue to drive with luck. .
Highway driving precautions
Now time is becoming more and more important to people, and speed is exactly the guarantee of time, so highways have become more and more the preferred road for people to drive. However, there are many dangerous factors in high-speed driving itself. If the driver cannot master the characteristics of highway driving and driving operation methods, the possibility of major accidents is bred. Therefore, please be sure to read the highway safety driving collection carefully to be “prepared for nothing”:
1. Be sure to do a detailed inspection of the vehicle before entering the highway. First, check the amount of fuel.
At high speeds, cars consume more fuel than expected. Taking a car with a fuel consumption of 10 liters per hundred kilometers as an example, driving at 100 kilometers per hour at a speed of 50 kilometers per hour consumes 10 liters of fuel, while driving at 100 kilometers at 100 kilometers per hour will consume about 16 liters of fuel. Fuel consumption at high speeds has increased significantly, so fuel must be adequately prepared at high speeds.
2. Check the air pressure of the tire.
When the car is driving, the tire will compress and expand, which is the so-called tire deformation, especially when the tire pressure is low and the speed is high. Separation of layers, or broken and scattered rubber on the tread, cause a flat tire and a vehicle accident. Therefore, before driving at high speed, the tire air pressure is higher than usual.
3. Check the braking effect.
The braking effect of a car plays an important role in driving safety. When driving on the highway, pay more attention to the braking effect. Before starting, you should check the braking effect at a low speed. If an abnormality is found, you must repair it. Otherwise, it may cause a serious accident.
In addition, the inspection of oil, coolant, fan belt, steering, transmission, lights, signals and other parts can not be ignored.
After finishing the inspection work, we can get on the highway. At this time, we should also pay attention to the following driving tips:
1. Enter the driveway correctly.
Vehicles entering the highway from the ramp entrance must increase their speed in the acceleration lane and turn on the left turn signal. When the normal driving of the vehicle on the lane is not affected, enter the lane from the acceleration lane, and then turn off the turn signal.
2. Keep a safe distance.
When the vehicle is driving at a high speed, the following vehicle in the same lane must maintain a sufficient safety distance from the preceding vehicle. As a rule of thumb, the safety distance is approximately equal to the vehicle speed. When the vehicle speed is 100 kilometers / hour, the safety distance is 100 meters. When the vehicle speed is 70 kilometers / hour, the safety distance is 70 meters. In case of rain, snow, fog, etc. In the weather, it is necessary to increase the driving clearance and reduce the speed appropriately.
3. Be cautious over the vehicle.
When you need to overtake, you should first observe the state of the front and rear vehicles and turn on the left turn signal at the same time. After confirming the safety, turn the steering wheel slowly to the left to make the vehicle smoothly enter the passing lane. After passing the overtaken vehicle, turn on the right turn signal. After all the passing vehicles have entered the rearview mirror, operate the steering wheel smoothly, enter the right lane, turn off the turn signals, and it is strictly forbidden to give directions in the process of overtaking.
4. Use the brake properly.
On the highway, it is very dangerous to use emergency braking, because as the speed of the vehicle increases, the tire's ability to adhere to the road surface decreases, and the chances of braking slip and sideslips increase, making it difficult to control the direction of the vehicle. If the vehicle behind is too late to take measures, a collision of multiple cars will occur. When braking is required during driving, first release the accelerator pedal, and then lightly press the brake pedal for a small stroke and multiple times. This way of braking can make the brake lights flash quickly, which is conducive to the attention of the following vehicle.
Title: Member Re: Driving Knowledge
Car driving essentials and emergency methods (ZT)
When driving on the road, I often see some accidents such as crickets. There are reasons for violations of the rules and drivers' improper operation. Here are some basic driving tips and emergency treatment methods:
First, adjust the seat
1. Adjust and adjust the seat up and down so that you can clearly see everything in front of the car and the main instruments in the car.
2. Fore and aft adjustment When the brake pedal is fully depressed, the entire sole must be in full contact with the pedal, and the right leg can still be slightly bent to maintain sufficient braking pressure. Stretching your legs too straight increases the risk of leg injuries.
3. Backrest adjustment The optimal backrest state is that the driver can still grasp the farthest point of the steering wheel when the shoulder does not leave the seat back, and the elbow is not fully straightened. At this time, the backrest state is ideal.
4. Adjusting the headrest When adjusting the headrest, make sure that the centerline of the headrest is flush with the eyebrows.
Second, fasten your seat belt
Always fasten your seat belt before starting the car. The seat belt must pass through the middle of the shoulder collarbone. Do not hinder the movement of the arm. If you have a tie, you must place the tie outside the seat belt. Also be careful not to twist or twist the shoulder belt when pulling it down.
Third, turn the steering wheel
Think of the steering wheel as the surface of a clock, with both hands at 9:15. In this way, the steering wheel can be rotated 180 degrees left and right, without having to leave the steering wheel. When the steering wheel rotates more than 180 degrees, both hands can exchange their positions during the steering process, making the steering wheel smoother.
Pay attention to the thumb smoothly against the steering wheel, do not hook the steering wheel bone, otherwise in case of emergency, the body jumps violently, and it is easy to damage the thumb.
How to deal with understeer
Enter the curve at a higher speed. When you find that you need to make a turn, you hurriedly turn the steering wheel, but found that although the steering wheel turned too much, the vehicle did not obey the command, and still drove in the straight direction.
At the same time the wheels screamed harshly. At this point, stop turning the steering wheel, close the throttle, and turn the steering wheel slightly. After you can control the direction of the vehicle, do not turn the steering wheel.
Fifth, the treatment method of excessive steering
Oversteering is another extreme phenomenon when cornering, that is, the front of the car is not traveling along the curve, but rushing towards the center of the curve. This situation usually occurs when you suddenly accelerate and decelerate when cornering, or downshift too quickly on slippery curves. For manual transmission, release the clutch at this time, and turn the steering wheel in the opposite direction as far as possible. When the front of the car begins to turn, you should stop turning the steering wheel immediately, and quickly return the steering wheel to its original position, otherwise there may be a danger of the vehicle sliding backwards. The steering wheel must be fast during the whole process.
Look at the experience of old drivers,
1. When I first got this, I wanted to drive everything, even the tractor; I can't drive without driving now, I think my car is the best to drive.
2. One month before the official drive, I feel that the fifth gear is useless (not fast). Taking five months, I feel that the first gear is useless (self-feeling that the second gear is a good starting technique). Works.
3. When driving for one year, I feel that my car skills are very good, I dare to overtake any car, and let no one let me go. The road is my home. After three years, I ran long distances almost every day. It ’s possible that a coincidence can happen, and the speed of the car has slowed down a lot; now I know that buses and taxis in the urban area are the masters, and high-speed trucks are also the masters. You have to let them everywhere.
4. After being cooked, I think the yellow light is used to grab it; then I think the yellow light is used to stop; now I have to bring foot brakes to pass the green light, and let those who grab the yellow light and run through the red light.
5. As soon as I got to the car, I felt that bicycles, MOTO cars and pedestrians were really upsetting; now I often ride bicycles, walk, and find that cars are the most unreasonable things.
6. In the past, you had to brake suddenly when you felt that something was wrong. The scream of that tire was used to warn people who did n’t follow the rules. Now you know that you can let it go. The car is not where you want to park it. He can stop and he can stop.
7. In the past, when you gave people a union, you still had to squeeze forward; now as long as a cricket comes in, let it be, wondering whether this person is in a hurry to go to the hospital.
8. I used to think that I could grab a lot of time while walking in the traffic; now the line needs to be chosen as long as it is not slower than those who drive F1.
9. I used to think that walking in the flow of people is a symbol of car skills; now I know that the value of people cannot be measured with money.
10. In the past, when driving on the highway, I felt that 140 was much faster than 100 kilometers; now I know that when I arrive, it is only half an hour slower than driving 160, and I do n’t have to find toilets everywhere.
11. I used to think that occasional violations didn't matter much; now I know that the relationship between contingency and inevitability is only in the number of times, and there are not many factors for good or bad luck.
12. In the past, I always wanted to beat the other side in an accident; now I want to be private after being chased. The loss is better than the daily running team and insurance company.
13. In the past, a boring person scolded you, and you must fight for your life; now, at most, you just stretch out a finger to tell him the direction of heaven.
14. In the past, when I felt that others were driving chaotically, I wanted to educate the other party; now I feel that educating myself cannot be the most effective like him.
15. I used to think that the car was the same everywhere I parked it. Now I have to park to see what car is on the side and what car is behind. Can I keep a safe distance with them, can the security room and camera see the car ... Anyway, I think Quite a lot.
16. From the front to the back facing outwards, the trunk is now against the wall. The more the thief, the more the thief never patronized the trunk.
17. Once parked in front of the car in front of you; now you have to park a car and pour an extra half a meter backward, even if you park a car in the back, you can get out.
18. In the past, parking always had to put away the rear-view mirror; now you can't take it away, because it can help others to stay away from your car, even if it is broken, it is better than painting.
19. In the past, I repaired cars to listen to the master; now the master calls me: Master, do you want to change this thing?
20. In the past, maintenance, I feel that the frequently changed oil is the same; it is now known that changing the oil saves time and money, and the accessories must be original or branded.
21. In the past, I felt that driving BEN Z, BMW was very cool; I secretly smiled when I repaired the car at the rural agricultural machinery station the other day. Fortunately, I bought the xx.
22. In the past, I felt that the fuel consumption of 10 liters was only two yuan more than nine liters (five years ago). Now I know that 10,000 kilometers can save 400 to 500 yuan, and one year can save road maintenance costs.
23. In the past, I felt that the more complete the insurance, the better; now I only buy three responsibilities and car damage, plus careful driving, but the three responsibilities are very high, at least 200,000.
Title: Member Re: Driving Knowledge
Novice safe driving must read
Novices will encounter a variety of difficulties when driving on the road. Psychological stress, irregular operating behavior, bad behavior habits, and ability to handle road conditions will affect their driving level and pose a threat to others. Experts point out that the knowledge learned in driving schools is only the most basic driving skills for novices, and preparations must be made on the road.
Psychological preparation:
Don't panic. Before driving, you should be mentally prepared, relax as much as possible, and not be nervous. Nervous tends to make the actions you dare not do, but you should not dare to go when you should, but you cannot stop when you should stop, which is likely to cause an accident.
Don't worry. Drive with boldness and impatience. Especially the very important sight, emotional irritability easily take care of each other, resulting in operational errors.
Don't be quick. There is almost a misunderstanding in driving for beginners, thinking that driving fast is high driving skill. In fact, it is true to be able to visually check the speed of the car in front and keep a safe distance from it.
Don't be angry. Beginners are not familiar with driving because they are unfamiliar with driving, but do n’t take things for granted. Being angry means danger.
Don't be greedy. It is common sense that beginners are interested in driving, but it is not good to take too long. One is physical fatigue, and the other is that excessive excitement can easily confuse people, and it is not clear whether the driving behavior is correct.
It is safest to keep close to the speed of the traffic when driving and driving in parallel. Drivers who do n’t know how to connect to the line, they must observe the inside and outside rearview mirrors before learning to connect to the line. After confirming that there is a possibility of changing lanes, turn on the turn signal. After turning on the turn signal, gently turn the direction slightly to the side of the lane change, and at the same time, turn around and glance at the car, and once again confirm that there are no undiscovered vehicles in the dead corner of the reflector; Fuel, only when the speed is equal to or slightly higher than other vehicles, will not affect others.
The driver driving the steering wheel should adjust the front and rear positions of the seat so that the left leg will slightly bend after pressing the clutch to the bottom. When the right leg is fully pressed on the brake, the tailbone can bear against the seat back; Straight arms, the wrist can be placed on the top of the steering wheel; the body will not leave the back of the chair when changing the fifth gear.
When driving, you should consciously remind yourself to relax your body, let your back rest on the seat, and often look at the rearview mirror and left and right mirrors to have a concept of the movement of surrounding vehicles. In order to improve your observation level, it is also a method to find a companion sitting in the vice seat to help observe. If he reminds you to notice at the same time, it means that your observation is relatively comprehensive.
The traffic warning must be "four not follow": one does not follow large trucks. Large cargo is wide and tall, blocking the line of sight of the traffic, the cargo on the car may fall and hurt its own vehicles and personnel; second, do not follow the air taxi. Air taxis are "sweeping" on the road. Once someone finds a taxi, some drivers will suddenly brake. At this time, they are too tight and improperly handled, which will easily cause a series of rear-end collisions between two or more cars. The big public and the small public are just like the big goods, they are easy to obscure the sight of the traffic, and some buses enter and exit the station forcibly in and out, and sometimes do not turn on the turn signal. At this time, if the following distance is too close or the sides are more likely to cause accidents ; Four do not follow the outside car. Foreign cars are generally not as familiar with urban roads as locals, so driving is slow and hesitant. Left and right are easy to cause judgment errors.
If you follow the above four types of cars, you should open the distance appropriately and pay attention to passing in time under safe conditions that are conducive to overtaking.
Finally, novice drivers are required not to smoke, not to listen to irritating music, and not to drink alcohol. Because these habits can bring unexpected harm and cause dire consequences.
Driving common sense
For manual transmission cars, semi-linkages are inevitably often used on urban roads. The so-called semi-linkage is the state where the clutch is between the clutch and the clutch, and the transmission system is between the clutch and the clutch. It can provide a flexible power, in some complex road conditions, and in the starting, turning and short-distance follow-up. Will be used often. Some drivers fail to understand the principle of the clutch and operate incorrectly, resulting in damage to the clutch disc.
So, how to use semi linkage correctly?
First, the shorter the time in the semi-linked state, the better. In the semi-linked state, the clutch plate is abnormally worn, so the time of the semi-linked state should be shortened as much as possible.
Second, when the semi-linkage is frequently used, it should be carried out in a "semi-linked-disengaged-semi-linked-dissociated" manner to ensure good cooling of the clutch plate.
Third, maintain good driving habits and leave the pedal when the left foot is not in use. Some drivers develop the habit of not leaving their pedals, which will inadvertently cause the clutch to be in a semi-connected state and exacerbate the wear of the clutch plate.
Fourth, usually pay attention to the maintenance of the clutch plate. When you find that the pedal or the gear feels a large change, you should ask the repair personnel to diagnose it in time; when you smell a burnt smell, and the phenomenon of not being able to hang up, the clutch plate is generally burned out, and it should be repaired and replaced in time.
Three tricks for winter driving against thin ice
Drive straight on ice
Straight on icy roads, do not change lanes lightly.
When you have to overtake, keep a sufficient safety distance from the overtaken, and don't rush to return to the original road after overtaking, but pull away enough distance from the back car and then return to the original road.
Downshift and decelerate early when meeting and turning. When going downhill, control the vehicle speed within the controllable range. When driving on the ice, step on the gas pedal lightly and maintain a constant speed. Never step on the gas pedal to accelerate. Avoid damp and wet places when driving and parking. When parking at night, avoid potholes and water, otherwise the tires may be frozen. Steer the wheel correctly when sliding
When the vehicle is skidding, properly steering the steering wheel can effectively avoid tail flick or U-turn. Flick the steering wheel in the direction of the side slide, wait for the vehicle to return to the normal position, and then gently decelerate the brakes (if you have ABS equipment, press the brakes to the end) until the vehicle is fully controlled.
Downshift control vehicle speed
Learn how to use downshift to control the speed and let the engine brake when traveling on the road with ice. Try not to step on the brakes, you can use your hand to control the vehicle speed when necessary. Therefore, remember to avoid high-speed driving in winter and keep a certain distance from the vehicle in front, otherwise it will be difficult for the vehicle to slow down in a short time when driving at high speed.
When the vehicle speed drops, it can be supplemented by pedaling to control the vehicle speed. Experienced drivers said that when driving on icy roads, it is important to reduce speed by downshifting. Deceleration by braking is only an aid.
轮胎突爆切忌紧急制动
驾车出行,轮胎突然爆裂了,该怎么办?经验表明:轮胎突爆并不可怕,可怕的是不知道如何正确排除险情!轮胎突爆,理想的做法是让车迅速停下来,但要让高速行驶的汽车突然停下来绝非易事!有的驾驶员索性采取紧急制动的措施,孰不知,这样做很危险,常常节外生枝,极易造成翻车或撞车等伤亡事故。在这里,为大家介绍两种不同情况的应急处理方法。只要你采取正确处理方法,就会化险为夷。
爆胎会使车辆则立即出现跑偏或严重摇摆。此时,不要惊慌,应双手用力控制住方向盘,放松油门踏板,让汽车沿原行驶方向继续行驶一段路程,使之自行停车。切忌紧急制动,否则会酿成翻车等事故。
安全驾驶要领
1 保持正确驾驶态度,包括身体处于清醒状态,集中精神、留心他人、肩负责任。
2改变驾驶坏习惯,包括切忌动作突然,勿紧贴前车,勿单手握方向盘,勿胡乱切线,保持车灯的应有亮度。
3留意路面上潜伏的危机,包括留意前方突然出现的杂物,留意两侧行人,在高速公路上避免并排行车,随时观察后方,让自留有足够的安全空间。
4我们驾驶时,望得愈远愈好,若遇上不能望远的情况,便要减慢车速,根据自已的技术和能力,预留紧急制动的空间,让自已随时可以在见到有杂物或行人突然出现时立即刹停。
防护性驾驶法
1预留紧急制动空间,在行车距离上应最少预留2秒的行车距离,这是指前车驶过某一路边标记后,自已的汽车在2秒后才驶过。方法很简单,只须用平时的说话速度心算著:“一千零一,一千零二”就可以了,而在雨天时更要多留2秒时间。
2切线时,应先观察邻线上的行车情况,待有充裕的空间时便开启转向灯,再看清后视镜,发觉没障碍后,最重要的是作一次斜视(侧头望清盲点地方),肯定没有汽车受C柱遮挡,便可切线。
3在黑夜(包括黄昏及黎明)或能见度低(例如下雨或大雾)的情况下驾驶时,必须保持车辆的所有前灯、大灯及后灯亮著。在有街灯的环境下或迎面有车辆驶近时,必须采用近光灯,近光灯角度不会使其他车辆的驾驶者目眩。雾灯的作用只在视野范围降低的环境下才使用,而不是在晴朗的天气下用来炫耀。
4不要让自已的汽车走在危险的位置,包括与重型汽车并排而行,及不要长期在邻道车辆的C柱附近行车。若遇上这情况的话,应在适当的时候减慢车速,或加快车速“逃离”这些危险位置。若尾随一部双后轮的重型车辆的时候,应让自已有更长的行车距离,避免前车突然刮起的碎石弹到自已的挡风玻璃上。
5遇上有车辆突然切线,应立即刹车,不可抢线。急刹车时要留意后方情况,而最重要的是不应切出外线闪避。
6遇上前方突然出现杂物,如果不影响生命安全,立即减慢车速之余,亦要留意后方车辆情况。如要切线闪避,也要像切线般检查清楚才做,因为在高速公路上,车速太快的话,突然刹停比撞上杂物更危险。基杂物太大会影响生命安全,唯有尽快刹停,切忌胡乱切线避开。
7遇上胡乱过马路的行人,除响号警告外,亦应立即刹停车辆,不可胡乱切线。
8在雨中行车,除了以比平时更慢的车速行车外,还要亮著大灯,距离前车要更远。若遇上路面积水,切记不可高速通过,因为水会造成左、右前轮受到不同的摩擦力而突然有方向轻微失控的现象发生,此时更不可急刹停车辆,只要保持车速,右脚放在制动板,随时准备刹车,紧握方向盘,保持行车轨道即可。
9在雾中驾驶,除降低车速外,切勿亮大灯,只要亮著小灯便可。另外,也可安装照射角度低于大灯的雾灯行车(现在的车辆都以装备原厂的雾灯)。在雾中行车,纵使天气仍冷,都要长开冷气,避免挡风玻璃结雾,影响驾驶视线。

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