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hg22360.com Must-know Chinese traditional calligraphy techniques (1)

Must-know Chinese traditional calligraphy techniques (1)

Source: Time: 2020-03-11 13:19:37

Millennium Tongzhou vitality north stream

Calligraphy techniques consist of three parts: strokes, endings, and rules. These three parts are both independent, interrelated and influence each other.
The first stroke
The method of writing refers to the method of using a brush to write correctly, and it is a means to make the stippling lines in the book meet certain aesthetic requirements. The stroke is the core content and key point of calligraphy technique. It includes two parts: writing and using the pen.
I. Writing
Writing is the method of holding a brush. The correctness of the writing directly affects the quality of the works, so it is important to develop the correct writing method at the beginning. The ancients have tried various methods of writing, such as the single hook method, the double hook method, the tube picking method, the twisting tube method, the plucking method, the gripping method, and so on. Su Shi said: "There is no way to write, you must make it empty and wide." In fact, this "virtual and wide" is the method. After thousands of years of practice and screening by numerous scholars, they finally concluded a writing method accepted by most of them, that is, the five-character writing method of "挟, 押, 钩, 格, Arrival" proposed by Lu Xisheng of Tang Dynasty . "挟" refers to the inner belly of the first section of the thumb leaning against the leaning side of the pen. "Push" refers to holding the first section of the index finger obliquely and leaning against the outside of the pen. "Hook" refers to hooking the outside of the pen with the first or second or second section of the middle finger close to the index finger. "Grid" refers to using a ring finger to hold the pen tube together with the hook force of the index finger and the middle finger, which not only makes the pen basically balanced, but also makes the pen movement more flexible. "Arrival" refers to naturally supporting the ring finger with the little finger, so that the five fingers can be more coordinated when they are applied to the pen, so that the strength can be balanced. However, it is also a five-character writing method, which has its own strength because of the angle of the finger bending and the depth and tightness of the writing. As long as the fingers and wrists are flexible and convenient when writing, and meet the physiological structure requirements of the hand, the pen can be basically perpendicular to the paper surface, which is the correct writing method, whether writing small or large characters, sitting or standing, pillow Wrist or cantilever, the writing posture should be straight and clever. After mastering the correct writing, you should further master the correct writing method to ensure the ease of writing.
1. Occipital wrist method
Pillow your right hand on the table, or place the back of your left hand under the right wrist of the pen, called pillow-wrist method. At this time, the palm should be slightly raised, and the included angle between the palm and the desktop is relatively large. Generally, only small letters should be written in this method at about 75 degrees.
2. Cantilever method
Wrist hanging up from the table, with the elbow pillow resting on the table, called the wrist hanging method. At this time, the palm can be slightly flattened, and the angle between the palm and the desktop is smaller than that of the pillow and wrist. You can write a character about 5 cm in size.
Elbow method
Both the wrist and elbow are off the table, and the entire arm is suspended. At this time, the angle between the palm and the desktop is smaller than the cantilever method. Because there is no obstacle, you can write larger characters. Generally, the elbow method is used for writing when standing. In this method, the angle between the wrist and the desktop is smaller, and the wrist is often flat. At this time, the distance between the finger and the palm of the pen is widened. Taking this posture to write, you can freely write characters of various sizes. According to the size of the written characters, the actions of fingers, wrists, and elbows when writing are roughly as follows:
Fingering
The method of using your finger to move a brush to complete writing is called "finger fingering." The fingering method is generally suitable for small print, and it is usually used in conjunction with the pillow-wrist method.
2. Wrist movement
The method of using the movement of the wrist to complete writing is called the "wrist movement method". The wrist movement method is suitable for writing a larger space; it is generally used in conjunction with the cantilever method or the elbow method.
Elbow movement
The method of elbow movement to complete writing is called the "elbow movement method". Larger characters can be written using this method, and large characters of the evil spirits can only be written using the elbow method, and sometimes they must be coordinated with the movement of the body to complete the writing.
Generally speaking, scholars do not support writing with the flick of a finger (except for small print), because the characters written in this way are easy to slip, and most scholars agree with "pen-to-pen"; It does not exclude the fine movements of the fingers. Writing is done through coordinated movements of fingers, wrists, arms, and elbows. Nothing can be copied or copied mechanically.
The tightness of writing and the strength of writing are often debated by ancient and modern books. The adherent advocates "full strength" (Bao Shichen), and the adherent advocates "lighten the pen" (Mi Fu). If they go to extremes, errors will inevitably result. It should be tight and loose at times, like tight and loose, after a long period of training. Eventually, he reached the realm of "hand-free transport, pen and hand-to-hand" (Tao Hongjing: "On the Book Kai with Liang Wudi").
In addition, the level of writing has a certain relationship with the style and style of the book. Low writing, stable characters, suitable for writing 适宜, li, xing, Kai; high writing, elegant characters, suitable for cursive or cursive writing. However, calmness is easy to be rigid, elegant and easy to float. Excellent calligraphy works should reach a state of calmness and happiness.
In addition to being correct, the body is also crucial. There are two types of postures: sitting and standing. In addition to sitting upright, straight, and secure, the pen should be centered and the arms pulled forward. Stand with your feet and shoulders apart, lean forward, and pull your arms forward. Whether it is sitting or standing, the body must naturally relax, and the posture must be correct in order to develop good writing habits.
Second, with a pen
The method of using a brush with a finger refers to the method in which the pen hair runs in a stippling. The ancients paid great attention to the use of pens. In the Yuan Dynasty, Zhao Mengfu said in Lanting Thirteen Postscripts that calligraphy was based on pens, and that the knots had to be worked. Covering the knots was handed down from time to time. This shows the position of the pen in the art of calligraphy.
Strictly speaking, there are two aspects of using a pen to use the front and using nothing, but in actual writing, it is difficult to completely separate the two. They are a comprehensive composition of several actions, so they are considered together. The method of using the pen includes a variety of methods such as center, side, hiding, lifting, turning, translation, turning, etc. It also includes the speed of the brush when running, the speed of using the pen, and the method of using ink.
(A) use the front and use nothing
1. Center pen
The stroke of the pen in the middle of the stipple is called the center pen, which means that the direction of movement of the pen hair touching the paper surface is consistent with the direction of the pen. When the center moves the pen, because the ink stored in the pen hair can be smoothly injected into the paper as the pen runs, it can write round, thick, plump and full strokes. In Cai Jiu's "Nine Potentials", he wrote: "The round pen belongs to paper, so the pen's heart often moves in stippling." It is said that the center moves the pen. The tip of the writing brush is conical. When it touches the surface of the paper, the middle part is the thickest and stores a lot of ink. The lines in the book give a three-dimensional impression. However, during the operation of the brush, the same "flat pen" phenomenon as that of the row brush will appear. Although it still belongs to the "center" range, the book is thin and flat, and lacks the kind of "round pen paper". Roundness. Therefore, the technique of using a pen is to adjust the pen tip to restore and maintain the cone state. Once the pen has been turned on and it cannot be adjusted, you need to use the "licking pen" method to make it round. Since the center forward pen can write round and powerful lines, making it a visual effect in three dimensions, it is a main method of using the pen.
However, it is also the center-stroke pen. Due to the difference in the strength and speed of the writer's strokes, the different papers, pens, and the density of ink and wash, will also write lines with different textures. These lines with different textures are generally divided into two categories: "fork strands" and "house leak marks".
The folded strands have smooth and smooth lines, and are very healthy, giving people a beautiful and clean beauty. The leaky lines of the house are awkward and stiff, frustrating and plucking, giving people a vigorous and hot beauty. Folding strands are faster in writing; house leak marks are slower in strokes, and accompanied by tremors like a boat sailing against the water to write lines with richer content than folding strands. Both of these lines express the "bone strength" of calligraphy and should not be neglected. Learners can choose lines with different aesthetic tastes to express their different styles. The line of the house leak is related to the writing technique, but it is also a natural expression of the skill of the scholar, not the result of intentional shaking, frustration or distortion. "Doing" is vulgar, which is also something that beginners must pay attention to.
2. Deflection Pen
The stroke of the pen runs on one side of the stroke, which is called the off-stroke pen. At this time, the direction of the pen touching the paper surface is perpendicular to the running direction of the pen.
When the pen is moved at an angle, the ink stored in the pen hair flows to the pen tip, but the pen runs in a vertical direction. The ink at the pen tip is rich, so the trace left on the pen tip appears smooth and flat; while the other side is due to the pen hair The direction on the paper is not consistent with the running direction of the pen. The paper and pen hair produce a certain friction, the ink flow is not smooth, and it seems sluggish. Therefore, there are sometimes no ink marks on the paper, which are staggered. , Jerky. Because the lines of Bifeng Yunbi's book appear to be broken and thin, not full and perfect, it is regarded as a sick pen.
3. Side Run Pen
The method of moving the pen between the center and the oblique is called the side forward pen. At this time, the direction of the pen touching the paper surface and the running direction of the pen are at an angle of about 45 °. The smaller this angle is, the closer it is to the center forward pen; the larger, the closer it is to the side forward pen.
The shape and texture effect of the lines written on the side of the pen is between the center and the side of the pen. Because the side pen is more casual, it is conducive to the stroke of the previous stroke, and it is conducive to the acceleration of writing speed. Therefore, the side forward Yunbi is still a "legal" Yunbi. However, the writers of all ages still advocated the center forward pen, supplemented by the side forward pen. Of course, whether or not to use a side forward pen has a certain relationship with the typeface and style of the book. Ming Feng Fang said in the Book of Shu: "The ancients used writing, dividing, truth, deed, and cursive writing, and they used the pen to do the same. Eight, the winger is second, and the 篆 is not sideways, but this is only a general idea. "Qing Jinnong once created his own" lacquer book ". The scholars only use the restricted area of the center and the side to carry the pen, and self-renovation is a special case. When using cursive script to move the pen, use a slanting transition, followed by the middle and side forwards, which can save the trouble of changing the pen and the pen and change the fun. Strokes that are too singular and pure will look monotonous.
4. Hidden from the Tibetan front
The moment when the pen touches the paper surface is called pen drawing, falling or down; when a stipple is completed, the pen edge is called retracting.
① Tibetan Feng started writing. When writing, the traces of the pen are covered in the strokes, and the sharpness is not exposed. This method of drawing is called the Tibetan drawing from the front. Because the direction of this stroke is opposite to the direction of stippling, it is also called reverse stroke or "inverse". Zang Feng's pen is also rounded. Zang Feng's square pen is the result of Zang Feng's staggering, and Zang Feng's round pen is the result of Zang Feng's stroke.
② Tibetan Feng closed his pen. When the pen is retracted, the pen returns to the stippling and then leaves the paper surface. The sharp edge is not exposed outside the stroke. This method of retracting the pen is called hiding the pen or returning the pen. The ancients said, "Nothing will be closed, no slackness will not shrink". Zang Feng's strokes are also divided into squares and circles. The principle is the same as the square and circle strokes in Zang Feng's strokes. The Tibetan front and back make the strokes look solemn and subtle. This method is used purely in the scriptures, and it is also commonly used in script styles such as Li, Kai, Xing, and Cao.
5. Lu Feng stowed away
① Lu Feng raised his pen. The method of starting the pen when the pen tip is exposed outside the stippling at the time of pen-drawing is called lu-feng pen-drawing. Lu Feng's strokes are often based on side strikes. This stroke is extremely sharp and radiant, and can take on the strokes of the previous stroke, which strengthens the connection between stippling. "Fall down" means this method. It is commonly used in cursive and cursive writing, and in Kai and Lishu styles, it appears from time to time due to the different writing habits of the scholars.
② Lu Feng closed his pen. When the pen is closed, the pen is exposed outside the stippling and has a sharp edge. The method of closing the pen is called exposing the pen or closing the pen. There are various forms of exiting the pen. There are horizontal exit, upward exit, and downward exit. There are hanging pins, left exit, and right exit. Other skimmers and points also have various exit forms. Lu Feng's retracting the pen has the effect of enhancing the strength of the pointillism of the book and exposing the spirit; in addition, the direction of the forward can lead to the next pointillue, thereby strengthening the connection and echo of the pointillism between the dots. means. Lu Feng's pen-drawing is suitable for various writing styles such as 篆, Li, Kai, Xing, and Cao, but it is especially used in Xing and Cursive.
6. Pan
The pen does not move up and down on the paper, but only moves in the center parallel to the surface of the paper, which is called translation or stroke or pen passing. There is no noticeable change in thickness of the translated lines. The pen can be moved in a straight line or an arc during translation.
7. Lift
The pen moves up and down on the paper, called lifting. Lifting is one of the important parts of using a pen, it is an indispensable means to complete the stippling, and it is also the key to make the thickness of the stroke change. The strokes are thin and the strokes are thick. The strokes cause the rhythm of stroke thickness to change.
In addition, the "lifting pen" in the lifting process is also the key to converting the brush tip. With the gradual improvement of the use of pens, the requirements for strokes have become higher and higher. In the Tang Dynasty, the script of regular script has matured, and the proportion of the center of strokes has increased. It is necessary to focus on the center to move the pen. It is necessary to have a skilled technique of adjusting the pen tip. This technique is "pressing the pen with the pen". Dong Qichang once said: "It is necessary to mention the pen at the writing office, so as not to make itself embarrassed, but not to speak forever." This sentence is the importance of mentioning pens. For example, when writing a horizontal picture, "want to be vertical first, straight down", when the pen is pointing upwards, the pen is lying on the paper; if you go to the right, you will inevitably move the pen to the side. In order to meet the requirements of the forward movement of the pen, the pen must be lifted at the place where the pen is sent, that is, the pen is lifted immediately after the pen is lowered, and then the front is turned so that the movement direction of the pen hair is the same as the movement direction of the pen when the pen is on the right. Become a center striker. It can be seen that lifting the pen is one of the important links in the process of using the pen.

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